Table of Contents

 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-Q
     
þ   QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2009
OR
     
o   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     
Commission file number: 001-32567
 
Alon USA Energy, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
Delaware   74-2966572
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)
7616 LBJ Freeway, Suite 300, Dallas, Texas 75251
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(972) 367-3600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
             
Large accelerated filer o    Accelerated filer þ    Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o 
Indicate by check whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The number of shares of the Registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding as of May 1, 2009 was 46,814,021.
 
 

 


 

         
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CERTIFICATION OF CEO PURSUANT TO SECTION 302
     
CERTIFICATION OF CFO PURSUANT TO SECTION 302
     
CERTIFICATION OF CEO AND CFO PURSUANT TO SECTION 906
     

 


Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(dollars in thousands except per share data)
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (unaudited)          
ASSETS
               
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 18,293     $ 18,454  
Accounts and other receivables, net
    155,572       204,576  
Income tax receivable
          116,564  
Inventories
    337,732       232,320  
Current portion of heating oil crack hedge
    138,819       75,405  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    6,420       6,353  
 
           
Total current assets
    656,836       653,672  
 
           
Equity method investments
    36,940       37,661  
Property, plant, and equipment, net
    1,482,358       1,448,959  
Goodwill
    105,943       105,943  
Non-current portion of heating oil crack hedge
          42,080  
Other assets
    125,717       125,118  
 
           
Total assets
  $ 2,407,794     $ 2,413,433  
 
           
 
               
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
               
 
               
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 286,818     $ 233,004  
Accrued liabilities
    106,711       111,317  
Current portion of long-term debt
    31,564       28,397  
Deferred income tax liability
    44,874       30,570  
 
           
Total current liabilities
    469,967       403,288  
 
           
Other non-current liabilities
    134,451       104,190  
Long-term debt
    970,779       1,075,172  
Deferred income tax liability
    277,014       293,916  
 
           
Total liabilities
    1,852,211       1,876,566  
 
           
Commitments and contingencies (Note 17)
               
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Preferred stock, par value $0.01, 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding
           
Common stock, par value $0.01, 100,000,000 shares authorized; 46,814,021 and 46,814,021 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively
    468       468  
Additional paid-in capital
    183,953       183,642  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of income tax
    (37,606 )     (37,354 )
Retained earnings
    303,373       287,895  
 
           
Total stockholders’ equity
    450,188       434,651  
 
           
Non-controlling interest in subsidiaries
    18,945       17,916  
Preferred stock of subsidiary including accumulated dividends
    86,450       84,300  
 
           
Total equity
    555,583       536,867  
 
           
Total liabilities and equity
  $ 2,407,794     $ 2,413,433  
 
           
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except per share data)
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
Net sales (1)
  $ 722,180     $ 1,020,763  
Operating costs and expenses:
               
Cost of sales
    539,730       968,997  
Direct operating expenses
    68,864       42,289  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    31,915       28,854  
Net costs associated with fire
          16,462  
Depreciation and amortization
    22,090       13,745  
 
           
Total operating costs and expenses
    662,599       1,070,347  
 
           
Gain on disposition of assets
          2,311  
 
           
Operating income (loss)
    59,581       (47,273 )
Interest expense
    (28,256 )     (10,656 )
Equity earnings (loss) of investees
    (3 )     316  
Other income, net
    257       745  
 
           
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit), non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries and accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    31,579       (56,868 )
Income tax expense (benefit)
    10,995       (21,093 )
 
           
Income (loss) before non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries and accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    20,584       (35,775 )
Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries
    1,083       (2,197 )
Accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    2,150        
 
           
Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
  $ 17,351     $ (33,578 )
 
           
 
               
Earnings (loss) per share, basic and diluted
  $ 0.37     $ (0.72 )
 
           
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic (in thousands)
    46,806       46,782  
 
           
 
               
Cash dividends per share
  $ 0.04     $ 0.04  
 
           
 
(1)   Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail and branded marketing segment of $11,044 and $9,654 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands)
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
Cash flows from operating activities:
               
Net income (loss)
  $ 17,351     $ (33,578 )
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
               
Depreciation and amortization
    22,090       13,745  
Stock compensation
    421       505  
Deferred income tax expense
    (26 )     407  
Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries
    1,083       (2,197 )
Accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    2,150        
Mark-to-market of heating oil crack spread hedge
    (21,334 )      
Gain on disposition of assets
          (2,311 )
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
               
Accounts and other receivables, net
    14,879       12,761  
Income tax receivable
    112,952       (21,768 )
Insurance receivable
          (15,692 )
Inventories
    (105,412 )     65,139  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    (10,225 )     (710 )
Other assets
    15,113       (664 )
Accounts payable
    73,062       (57,429 )
Accrued liabilities
    (1,624 )     (25,146 )
Other non-current liabilities
    (953 )     17,314  
 
           
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
    119,527       (49,624 )
 
           
 
               
Cash flows from investing activities:
               
Capital expenditures
    (10,357 )     (9,182 )
Capital expenditures to rebuild the Big Spring refinery
    (32,135 )      
Capital expenditures for turnarounds and catalysts
    (7,363 )     (1,609 )
Proceeds from insurance to rebuild the Big Spring refinery
    34,125        
Sale of short-term investments, net
          27,296  
Dividends from investment in investees (net of equity earnings)
    721       363  
 
           
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
    (15,009 )     16,868  
 
           
 
               
Cash flows from financing activities:
               
Dividends paid to shareholders
    (1,873 )     (1,872 )
Dividends paid to non-controlling interest
    (144 )     (121 )
Deferred debt issuance costs
    (1,436 )      
Revolving credit facilities, net
    (94,833 )      
Payments on long-term debt
    (6,393 )     (2,731 )
 
           
Net cash used in financing activities
    (104,679 )     (4,724 )
 
           
 
               
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
    (161 )     (37,480 )
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
    18,454       68,615  
 
           
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
  $ 18,293     $ 31,135  
 
           
 
               
Supplemental cash flow information:
               
Cash paid for interest
  $ 23,583     $ 10,115  
 
           
Cash paid (refunds received) for income tax
  $ (113,474 )   $ (101 )
 
           
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
     (1) Basis of Presentation and Certain Significant Accounting Policies
          (a) Basis of Presentation
          The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Alon USA Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Alon”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. These consolidated financial statements of Alon are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of Alon’s management, the information included in these consolidated financial statements reflects all adjustments, consisting of normal and recurring adjustments, which are necessary for a fair presentation of Alon’s consolidated financial position and results of operations for the interim periods presented. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results that may be obtained for the year ending December 31, 2009.
          The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2008 has been derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. These unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Alon’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008.
          (b) Revenue Recognition
          Revenues from sales of refined products are earned and realized upon transfer of title to the customer based on the contractual terms of delivery (including payment terms and prices). Title primarily transfers at the refinery or terminal when the refined product is loaded into common carrier pipelines, trucks or railcars (free on board origin). In some situations, title transfers at the customer’s destination (free on board destination).
          In the ordinary course of business, logistical and refinery production schedules necessitate the occasional sale of crude oil to third parties. All purchases and sales of crude oil are recorded net, in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations.
          (c) New Accounting Standards
          In December 2008, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued FASB Staff Position FAS 132(R)-1, Employers’ Disclosures about Postretirement Benefit Plans (“FSP FAS 132(R)-1”), which amends FASB Statement 132 (revised 2003), Employers’ Disclosures about Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits, to provide guidance on employers disclosures about plan assets of defined benefit pension or other postretirement plan. The disclosures are intended to provide users of financial statements an understanding of the determination of investment allocations, the major categories of plan assets, inputs and valuation techniques used to measure fair value of plan assets, and significant concentrations of credit risk with plan assets. FAS 132(R)-1 is effective for years ending after December 15, 2009. Since FSP FAS 132 (R)-1 only affects disclosure requirements, there will be no effect on Alon’s results of operations or financial position.
          In November 2008, the FASB ratified its consensus on EITF Issue No. 08-6, Equity Method Investment Accounting Considerations. The scope of the Issue applies to all investments accounted for under the equity method. The Issue covers the initial measurement of an equity method investment, recognition of other-than-temporary impairments, and the effects on ownership of the investor due to the issuance of shares by the investee. The Issue is effective for fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2008. The adoption did not have any effect on Alon’s consolidated financial statements.
          In June 2008, the FASB ratified its consensus on EITF Issue No. 08-3, Accounting by Lessees for Maintenance Deposits, which applies to the lessee’s accounting for maintenance deposits paid by a lessee under an arrangement accounted for as a lease that are refunded only if the lessee performs specified maintenance activities

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
and deposits within the scope of the Issue shall be accounted for as deposit assets. The effect of the change shall be recognized as a change in accounting principle as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the consensus is initially applied for all arrangements existing at the effective date. This Issue is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. The adoption did not have any effect on Alon’s consolidated financial statements.
          In April 2008, the FASB issued FASB Staff Position FAS 142-3, Determination of the Useful Life of Intangible Assets (“FSP FAS 142-3”). FSP FAS 142-3 amends the factors that should be considered in developing renewal or extension assumptions used to determine the useful life of a recognized intangible asset under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. FSP FAS 142-3 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008 and early adoption is prohibited. The adoption did not have any effect on Alon’s consolidated financial statements.
          In March 2008, the FASB issued SFAS No. 161, Disclosure about Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities (“SFAS No. 161”), which established disclosure requirements for hedging activities. SFAS No. 161 requires that entities disclose the purpose and strategy for using derivative instruments, include discussion regarding the method for accounting for the derivative and the related hedged items under SFAS No. 133 and the derivative and related hedged items’ effect on a company’s financial statements. SFAS No. 161 also requires quantitative disclosures about the fair values of derivative instruments and their gains or losses in tabular format as well as discussion regarding contingent credit-risk features in derivative agreements and counterparty risk. SFAS No. 161 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning on or after November 15, 2008. There was no effect on Alon’s results of operations or financial position, and the required disclosures are included in Note 7.
          Effective January 1, 2008, Alon adopted the provisions of SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, which pertain to certain balance sheet items measured at fair value on a recurring basis. SFAS No. 157 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about such measurements that are permitted or required under other accounting pronouncements. While SFAS No. 157 may change the method of calculating fair value, it does not require any new fair value measurements.
          In February 2008, the FASB issued FASB Staff Position FAS 157-2, Partial Deferral of the Effective Date of Statement 157 (“FSP FAS 157-2”). FSP FAS 157-2 delays the effective date of SFAS No. 157 for nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities, except for items that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually) to fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008. The adoption did not have any effect on Alon’s consolidated financial statements.
          In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 160, Non-controlling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements, an Amendment of ARB 51 (“SFAS No. 160”), which requires non-controlling interests (previously referred to as minority interests) to be treated as a separate component of equity. SFAS No. 160 is effective for periods beginning on or after December 15, 2008. Earlier application is prohibited. SFAS No. 160 will be applied prospectively to all non-controlling interests, including any that arose before the effective date except that comparative period information must be recast to classify non-controlling interests in equity, attribute net income and other comprehensive income to non-controlling interests, and provide other disclosures required by SFAS No. 160. The following table presents the effect of the adoption of SFAS No. 160 to the consolidated balance sheet.
                         
    December 31,           December 31,
    2008   Adjustments   2008
    (as reported)           (restated)
Total stockholders’ equity
  $ 431,919     $ 2,732     $ 434,651  
 
                 
Non-controlling interest in subsidiaries (1)
          17,916     17,916  
Preferred stock of subsidiary including accumulated dividends (1)
          84,300       84,300  
 
                 
Total equity
  $ 431,919     $ 104,948     $ 536,867  
 
                 
 
(1)   Previously reported outside of equity.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The adjustments reflect the attribution of unrealized gains or losses historically recorded to accumulated other comprehensive loss to non-controlling interest in subsidiaries and the reclassification of non-controlling interest in subsidiaries and preferred stock of subsidiary including dividends into equity.
          In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141(R), Business Combinations, which requires that the purchase method of accounting be used for all business combinations. SFAS No. 141(R) requires most identifiable assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests, and goodwill acquired in a business combination be recorded at “full fair value.” SFAS No. 141(R) applies to all business combinations, including combinations by contract alone. SFAS No. 141(R) is effective for periods beginning on or after December 15, 2008 and earlier application is prohibited. SFAS No. 141(R) will be applied to business combinations occurring after the effective date.
     (d) Reclassifications
          Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior period balances to conform to the current presentation.
     (2) Big Spring Refinery Fire
          On February 18, 2008, a fire at the Big Spring refinery destroyed the propylene recovery unit and damaged equipment in the alkylation and gas concentration units. The re-start of the crude unit in a hydroskimming mode began on April 5, 2008 and the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (“FCCU”) resumed operations on September 26, 2008. Substantially all of the repairs to the units damaged in the fire have been completed other than the alkylation unit which is expected to be completed by the end of 2009.
          Alon’s insurance policies provided a combined single limit of $385,000 for property damage, with a $2,000 deductible, and business interruption coverage with a 45 day waiting period. Alon also had third party liability insurance which provided coverage with a limit of $150,000 and a $5,000 deductible.
          For purposes of financial reporting, Alon recorded costs associated with the fire on a pretax basis net of anticipated insurance recoveries and reflected this as a separate line item on the consolidated statements of operations. For the three months ended March 31, 2008, Alon recorded pretax costs of $16,462 associated with the fire. The components of the net costs as of March 31, 2008 include: $11,672 of expenses incurred from pipeline commitment deficiencies, crude sale losses and other incremental costs; $4,000 for Alon’s insurance deductibles under the insurance policies described above; and $790 of depreciation for the temporarily idled facilities.
          Gross costs, for which insurance recoveries were recognized as of March 31, 2008, were $44,974, which included costs associated with: the demolition of destroyed equipment and clean up of the impacted area; inspections and repairs to damaged facilities and losses of crude oil and product inventory. Included in this amount was Alon’s preliminary estimate of asset impairments associated with the fire of $29,282.
          Alon received $385,000 of insurance proceeds during 2008 and 2009, out of which $25,000 of insurance proceeds were received in March 2008.
     (3) Krotz Springs Refinery Acquisition
          On July 3, 2008, Alon completed the acquisition of all the capital stock of the refining business located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana, from Valero Energy Corporation (“Valero”). The purchase price was $333,000 in cash plus $141,494 for working capital, including inventories. The completion of the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition increased Alon’s crude refining capacity by 50% to approximately 250,000 barrels per day (“bpd”) including our refineries located on the West Coast and West Texas.
          The Krotz Springs refinery, with a nameplate crude capacity of approximately 83,100 bpd, supplies multiple demand centers in the Southeast and East Coast markets through a pipeline operated by the Colonial Pipeline Company. The 2008 refined product mix from the Krotz Springs refinery consisted of approximately 98% light products, with the following yields: 43% gasoline, 46% distillates and light cycle oils, 9% petrochemicals and 2% of heavy products.
          The cash portion of the purchase price and working capital payment were funded in part by borrowings under a $302,000 term loan credit facility and borrowings under a $400,000 revolving credit facility (Note 12).

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          Additionally, funds for a portion of the purchase price were provided through an $80,000 equity investment by Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd., the Company’s majority stockholder, in preferred stock of a new Alon holding company subsidiary, which may be exchanged for shares of Alon common stock after three years. The shares of the new subsidiary have a par value of $1,000.00 per share and accrue dividends at a rate of 10.75% per annum. The dividends are cumulative and paid upon approval of Alon’s board of directors. In addition, Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd. provided for the issuance of $55,000 in letters of credit to support increased borrowing capacity under the $400,000 revolving credit facility. A committee of independent and disinterested members of Alon’s board of directors negotiated and approved these transactions.
          The purchase price has been preliminarily allocated based on estimated fair values of the assets and liabilities acquired at the date of acquisition, pending the completion of an independent appraisal and other evaluations. The purchase price has been preliminarily determined as set forth below:
         
Cash paid
  $ 474,494  
Transaction costs
    6,517  
 
     
Total purchase price
  $ 481,011  
 
     
          The purchase price was preliminarily allocated as follows:
         
Current assets
  $ 145,859  
Property, plant and equipment
    376,702  
Current liabilities
    (22,809 )
Other non-current liabilities
    (18,741 )
 
     
Total purchase price
  $ 481,011  
 
     
          In connection with the acquisition, Alon entered into an earnout agreement with Valero, dated as of July 3, 2008, that provides for up to three annual payments to Valero based on the average market prices for crude oil, regular unleaded gasoline, and ultra low sulfur diesel in the preceding twelve month period compared to minimum thresholds. Each of the earnout payments, if applicable, shall be paid on each of the first three anniversaries of the date of the earnout agreement. As a result, $35,000 is reflected as an addition to property, plant and equipment with increases of $17,500 to accrued liabilities and $17,500 to other non-current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet at March 31, 2009.
          Alon and Valero also entered into an offtake agreement that provides for Valero to purchase at market prices, certain specified products and other products as may be mutually agreed upon from time to time. These products include regular and premium unleaded gasoline, ultra low sulfur diesel, jet fuel, light cycle oil, high sulfur diesel, No. 2 blendstock, butane/butylene, poly C4, normal butane, LPG mix, propane/propylene, high sulfur slurry, low sulfur atmospheric tower bottoms and ammonium thiosulfate. The term of the offtake agreement as it applies to the products produced by the refinery is as follows: (i) five years for light cycle oil and straight run diesel; (ii) one year for regular and premium unleaded gasoline; and (iii) three months for the remaining refined products.
          Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information
          The consolidated statements of operations include the results of the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition from July 1, 2008. The following unaudited pro forma financial information for Alon assumes:
    The acquisition of the Krotz Springs refining business occurred on January 1, 2008;
 
    $302,000 of term debt and $141,494 of borrowings under the revolver was incurred on January 1, 2008 to fund the acquisition and buy initial inventories; and
 
    Depreciation expense was higher beginning January 1, 2008 based upon the revaluation of estimated asset values as of that date.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
                 
    Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
 
  (unaudited)   (pro forma)
Net sales
  $ 722,180     $ 1,652,785  
Operating income (loss)
    59,581       (71,902 )
Net income (loss)
    17,351       (57,017 )
Earnings (loss) per share, basic
  $ 0.37     $ (1.22 )
 
           
     (4) Segment Data
          Alon’s revenues are derived from three operating segments: (i) refining and unbranded marketing, (ii) asphalt and (iii) retail and branded marketing. The reportable operating segments are strategic business units that offer different products and services. The segments are managed separately as each segment requires unique technology, marketing strategies and distinct operational emphasis. Each operating segment’s performance is evaluated primarily based on operating income.
          (a) Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment
          Alon’s refining and unbranded marketing segment includes sour and heavy crude oil refineries that are located in Big Spring, Texas; Paramount and Long Beach, California (the “California refineries”); and a light sweet crude oil refinery located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana. At these refineries Alon refines crude oil into petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, feedstocks, asphalts and other petroleum products, which are marketed primarily in the South Central, Southwestern and Western regions of the United States. Alon also acquires finished products through exchange agreements and third-party suppliers. Finished products and blendstocks are also marketed through sales and exchanges with other major oil companies, state and federal governmental entities, unbranded wholesale distributors and various other third parties.
          (b) Asphalt Segment
          Alon’s asphalt segment includes the Willbridge, Oregon refinery and 12 refinery/terminal locations in Texas (Big Spring), California (Paramount, Long Beach, Elk Grove, Bakersfield and Mojave), Oregon (Willbridge), Washington (Richmond Beach), Arizona (Phoenix, Flagstaff and Fredonia) and Nevada (Fernley) (50% interest) and a 50% interest in Wright Asphalt Products Company, LLC (“Wright”) which specializes in marketing patented tire rubber modified asphalt products. Alon produces both paving and roofing grades of asphalt and, depending on the terminal, can manufacture performance-graded asphalts, emulsions and cutbacks. The operations in which Alon has a 50% interest (Fernley and Wright), are recorded under the equity method of accounting, and the investments are included as total assets in the asphalt segment data.
          (c) Retail and Branded Marketing Segment
          Alon’s retail and branded marketing segment operates 306 owned and leased convenience stores located primarily in Central and West Texas and New Mexico. These convenience stores typically offer various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, general merchandise and food and beverage products to the general public primarily under the 7-Eleven and FINA brand names. Alon’s branded marketing business primarily markets gasoline and diesel under the FINA brand name in the Southwestern and South Central United States, through a network of approximately 670 locations, including Alon’s convenience stores. Additionally, Alon’s retail and branded marketing segment licenses the use of the FINA brand name and provides credit card processing services to 315 licensed locations that are not under fuel supply agreements with Alon. Branded distributors that are not part of our integrated supply system, primarily in Central Texas, are supplied with motor fuels obtained from third-party suppliers. In the first quarter of 2009, approximately 93% of Alon’s branded marketing operations, including retail operations, were supplied by our Big Spring refinery. As a result of the February 18, 2008 fire, the motor fuels sold by Alon’s convenience stores and by branded marketing in the first quarter of 2008 were primarily acquired from third-party suppliers.
          (d) Corporate
          Operations that are not included in any of the three segments are included in the corporate category. These operations consist primarily of corporate headquarter operating and depreciation expenses.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          Segment data as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008 is presented below:
                                         
    Refining and           Retail and            
    Unbranded           Branded           Consolidated
Three Months ended March 31, 2009   Marketing   Asphalt   Marketing   Corporate   Total
Net sales to external customers
  $ 503,950     $ 50,760     $ 167,470     $     $ 722,180  
Intersegment sales/purchases
    82,978       (44,528 )     (38,450 )            
Depreciation and amortization
    18,037       538       3,368       147       22,090  
Operating income (loss)
    80,199       (21,658 )     1,377       (337 )     59,581  
Total assets
    1,965,849       237,401       190,320       14,224       2,407,794  
Turnaround, chemical catalyst and capital expenditures
    48,896       162       219       578       49,855  
                                         
    Refining and           Retail and            
    Unbranded           Branded           Consolidated
Three Months ended March 31, 2008   Marketing   Asphalt   Marketing   Corporate   Total
Net sales to external customers
  $ 607,569     $ 103,940     $ 309,254     $     $ 1,020,763  
Intersegment sales/purchases
    164,470       (101,919 )     (62,551 )            
Depreciation and amortization
    9,630       532       3,360       223       13,745  
Operating income (loss)
    (42,561 )     (1,929 )     (2,409 )     (374 )     (47,273 )
Total assets
    923,477       305,604       228,465       10,864       1,468,410  
Turnaround, chemical catalyst and capital expenditures
    9,311       213       1,127       140       10,791  
          Operating income (loss) for each segment consists of net sales less cost of sales, direct operating expenses, selling, general and administrative expenses, net costs associated with fire, depreciation and amortization and gain on disposition of assets. Intersegment sales are intended to approximate wholesale market prices. Consolidated totals presented are after intersegment eliminations.
          Total assets of each segment consist of net property, plant and equipment, inventories, cash and cash equivalents, accounts and other receivables, insurance receivable, income tax receivables, prepaid and other current assets, equity method investments, goodwill and other assets directly associated with the segment’s operations. Corporate assets consist primarily of corporate headquarters information technology and administrative equipment.
     (5) Cash and Cash Equivalents
          Alon considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are stated at cost, which approximates market value.
     (6) Fair Value
          The carrying amounts of Alon’s cash and cash equivalents, receivables, payables and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these assets and liabilities. The reported amount of long-term debt approximates fair value. Derivative financial instruments are carried at fair value, which is based on quoted market prices for level 1. The fair value of derivative contracts are measured using level 2 inputs, and are determined by either market prices on an active market for similar assets or by prices quoted by a broker or other market corroborated prices.
          In accordance with SFAS No. 157, Alon must determine fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As required, Alon utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs (levels 1 and 2) and minimize the use of unobservable inputs (level 3) within the fair value hierarchy established by SFAS No. 157. Alon generally applies the “market approach” to determine fair value. This method uses pricing and other information generated by market transactions for identical or comparable assets and liabilities. Assets and liabilities are classified within the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level (least observable) input that is significant to the measurement in its entirety.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The following table sets forth the assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, by input level, in the consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively:
                               
    Quoted Prices              
    in              
    Active Markets   Significant          
    for Identical   Other   Significant    
    Assets or   Observable   Unobservable    
    Liabilities   Inputs   Inputs   Consolidated
    (Level 1)   (Level 2)   (Level 3)   Total
As of March 31, 2009
                             
Assets:
                             
Commodity swaps
  $     $ 138,819     $   $ 138,819  
Futures and forwards
    383                 383  
Liabilities:
                             
Commodity swaps
          26,373           26,373  
Interest rate swaps
          25,063           25,063  
 
                             
As of December 31, 2008
                             
Assets:
                             
Commodity swaps
  $     $ 117,485     $   $ 117,485  
Liabilities:
                             
Futures and forwards
    1,197                 1,197  
Commodity swaps
          25,473           25,473  
Interest rate swaps
          26,100           26,100  
     (7) Derivative Financial Instruments
          Commodity Derivatives — Mark to Market
          Alon selectively utilizes commodity derivatives to manage its exposure to commodity price fluctuations and uses crude oil and refined product commodity derivative contracts to reduce risk associated with potential price changes on committed obligations. Alon does not speculate using derivative instruments. Alon has elected not to designate the following commodity derivatives as cash flow hedges for financial accounting purposes. Therefore, changes in the fair value of the commodity derivatives are included in income in the period of the change. There is not a significant credit risk on Alon’s derivative instruments which are transacted through counterparties meeting established collateral and credit criteria. Crude oil and refined product forward contracts are used to manage price exposure associated with transactions to supply crude oil to the refineries and to the sale of refined products.
          At March 31, 2009, Alon held net forward contracts for sales of 9,000 barrels of crude and sales of 225,000 barrels of refined products at an average price of $57.30 per barrel. At March 31, 2008, Alon held net forward contracts for purchases of 25,000 barrels of refined products and forward contracts for purchases and sales of 780,000 barrels of crude oil at an average price of $102.88 per barrel. These forward contracts were not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, the contracts are recorded at their fair market values and an unrealized gain of $244 and unrealized loss of $108 has been included in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
          At March 31, 2009, Alon also held net futures contracts for purchases of 10,000 barrels of heating oil and sales of 320,000 barrels of crude at an average price of $49.69 per barrel. Additionally, at March 31, 2009, Alon had calls for the purchase of 140,000 barrels of crude at an average price of $4.68 per barrel. At March 31, 2008, Alon held net futures contracts for sales of 180,000 barrels of crude oil, sales of 15,000 barrels of heating oil and purchases of 50,000 barrels of refined products at an average price of $104.39 per barrel. These futures contracts were not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, the contracts are recorded at their fair market values and unrealized gains of $139 and $538 have been included in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          At March 31, 2009, Alon held futures contracts for 10,323,875 barrels of heating oil swaps at an average spread of $21.47 per barrel. These futures contracts were designated as hedges at inception, but were subsequently marked to market when the contracts no longer qualified for cash flow hedge accounting in the fourth quarter of 2008. Accordingly, the contracts are recorded at their fair market values and an unrealized gain of $21,334 has been included in cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2009. During April 2009, Alon liquidated all of the heating oil swaps contracts for approximately $135,000 and in addition, approximately $10,000 was collected under normal monthly settlement of the hedge position related to the month of March 2009.
          Cash Flow Hedges
          To designate a derivative as a cash flow hedge, Alon documents at the inception of the hedge the assessment that the derivative will be highly effective in offsetting expected changes in cash flows from the item hedged. This assessment, which is updated at least quarterly, is generally based on the most recent relevant historical correlation between the derivative and the item hedged. If, during the term of the derivative, the hedge is determined to be no longer highly effective, hedge accounting is prospectively discontinued and any remaining unrealized gains or losses, based on the effective portion of the derivative at that date, are reclassified to earnings when the underlying transaction occurs.
          Interest Rate Derivatives. Alon selectively utilizes interest rate related derivative instruments to manage its exposure to floating-rate debt instruments. Alon periodically uses interest rate swap agreements to manage its floating to fixed rate position by converting certain floating-rate debt to fixed-rate debt. As of March 31, 2009, Alon had interest rate swap agreements with a notional amount of $350,000 for periods of three to five years and fixed interest rates ranging from 4.25% to 4.75%. All of these swaps were accounted for as cash flow hedges.
          For cash flow hedges, gains and losses reported in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity are reclassified into interest expense when the forecasted transactions affect income. During the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, Alon recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income an unrealized after-tax gain of $674 and after-tax loss of $9,199, respectively, for the fair value measurement of the interest rate swap agreements. There were no amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income into interest expense as a result of the discontinuance of cash flow hedge accounting.
          For the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, there was no hedge ineffectiveness recognized in income. No component of the derivative instruments’ gains or losses was excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness.
          Commodity Derivatives. In May 2008, as part of financing the acquisition of the Krotz Springs refinery (Note 3), Alon entered into futures contracts for the forward purchase of crude oil and the forward sale of distillates of 14,849,750 barrels. These futures contracts were designated as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes. Gains and losses for the futures contracts designated as cash flow hedges reported in accumulated other comprehensive income in the balance sheet are reclassified into cost of sales when the forecasted transactions affect income. In the fourth quarter of 2008, Alon determined during its retrospective assessment of hedge effectiveness that the hedge was no longer highly effective. Cash flow hedge accounting was discontinued in the fourth quarter of 2008 and all changes in value subsequent to the discontinuance were recognized into earnings.
          Gains of $946 have been reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to earnings in the three months ending March 31, 2009. All remaining adjustments from accumulated comprehensive income to cost of sales will occur either over the 19 month period beginning April 1, 2009 or earlier if it is determined that the forecasted transactions are not likely to occur. No component of the derivative instruments’ gains or losses was excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The table below summarizes our derivative balances by counterparty credit quality (negative amounts represent our net obligations to pay the counterparty).
         
    March 31,  
Counterparty Credit Quality (1)   2009  
AAA
  $  
AA
    100,316  
A
    (12,777 )
Lower than A
    227  
 
     
Total
  $ 87,766  
 
     
 
(1)   As determined by nationally recognized statistical ratings organizations.
          The following table presents the effect of derivative instruments on the consolidated statements of financial position.
                         
    March 31, 2009  
    Asset Derivatives     Liability Derivatives  
    Balance Sheet   Fair     Balance Sheet   Fair  
    Location   Value     Location   Value  
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments under FAS 133:
                       
Commodity contracts (futures & forwards)
  Accounts receivable   $ 139     Accrued liabilities   $ (244 )
Commodity contracts (heating oil swaps)
  Current portion of heating oil crack spread     138,819            
Commodity contracts (SPR swaps)
            Accrued liabilities     11,891  
Commodity contracts (SPR swaps)
            Other non-current liabilities     14,482  
 
                   
Total derivatives not designated as hedging instruments under FAS 133
      $ 138,958         $ 26,129  
 
                   
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments under FAS 133:
                       
 
              Other non-current        
Interest rate swaps
      $     liabilities   $ 25,063  
 
                   
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments under FAS 133
                  25,063  
 
                   
Total derivatives
      $ 138,958         $ 51,192  
 
                   

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The following tables present the effect of derivative instruments on Alon’s consolidated statements of operations and accumulated other comprehensive income.
                                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31, 2009  
                        Gain (Loss) Reclassified from  
                        Accumulated OCI into  
    Gain (Loss)     Gain (Loss) Reclassified from     Income (Ineffective Portion  
Cash Flow Hedging   Recognized     Accumulated OCI into Income     and Amount Excluded from  
Relationships   in OCI     (Effective Portion)     Effectiveness Testing)  
            Location   Amount     Location   Amount  
Commodity contracts (heating oil swaps)
  $     Cost of sales   $ 946         $  
Interest rate swaps
    1,037     Interest expense     (3,446 )          
 
                         
Total derivatives
  $ 1,037         $ (2,500 )       $  
 
                         
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31, 2009  
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments   Gain (Loss) Recognized in Income  
under FAS 133:   Location   Amount  
Commodity contracts (futures & forwards)
  Cost of sales   $ 1,580  
Commodity contracts (heating oil swaps)
  Cost of sales     21,334  
Commodity contracts (SPR swaps)
  Cost of sales     (900 )
 
             
Total derivatives
          $ 22,014  
 
             
     (8) Inventories
          Alon’s inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined under the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for crude oil, refined products, asphalt, and blendstock inventories. Materials and supplies are stated at average cost. Cost for convenience store merchandise inventories is determined under the retail inventory method and cost for convenience store fuel inventories is determined under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
          Carrying value of inventories consisted of the following:
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstocks
  $ 297,517     $ 192,997  
Materials and supplies
    17,280       16,456  
Store merchandise
    19,162       19,875  
Store fuel
    3,773       2,992  
 
           
Total inventories
  $ 337,732     $ 232,320  
 
           
          Crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstock inventories totaled 6,002 barrels and 4,003 barrels as of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively.
          Market values of crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstock inventories exceeded LIFO costs by $7,010 and $4,022 at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
     (9) Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
          Property, plant and equipment, net consisted of the following:
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Refining facilities
  $ 1,483,275     $ 1,430,896  
Pipelines and terminals
    39,269       39,161  
Retail
    134,606       134,263  
Other
    13,630       13,052  
 
           
Property, plant and equipment, gross
    1,670,780       1,617,372  
Less accumulated depreciation
    (188,422 )     (168,413 )
 
           
Property, plant and equipment, net
  $ 1,482,358     $ 1,448,959  
 
           
     (10) Additional Financial Information
          The tables that follow provide additional financial information related to the consolidated financial statements.
          (a) Other Assets
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Deferred turnaround and chemical catalyst cost
  $ 17,390     $ 11,684  
Environmental receivables
    5,625       8,524  
Deferred debt issuance costs
    35,426       35,648  
Intangible assets
    6,921       7,055  
Deposit for hedge related activities for Krotz Springs refinery acquisition
    50,000       50,000  
Other
    10,355       12,207  
 
           
Total other assets
  $ 125,717     $ 125,118  
 
           
          (b) Accrued Liabilities and Other Non-Current Liabilities
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Accrued Liabilities:
               
Taxes other than income taxes, primarily excise taxes
  $ 20,303     $ 27,789  
Employee costs
    6,015       4,884  
Commodity swaps
    11,647       26,670  
Contingent liability
    17,500        
Other
    51,246       51,974  
 
           
Total accrued liabilities
  $ 106,711     $ 111,317  
 
           
 
               
Other Non-Current Liabilities:
               
Pension and other postemployment benefit liabilities, net (Note 11)
  $ 36,559     $ 35,989  
Environmental accrual
    31,815       33,181  
Interest rate swap valuations
    25,063       26,100  
Commodity swaps
    14,482        
Contingent liability
    17,500        
Other
    9,032       8,920  
 
           
Total other non-current liabilities
  $ 134,451     $ 104,190  
 
           

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          (c) Comprehensive Income
          The following table displays the computation of total comprehensive income:
                 
    Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
Income (loss) before non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries and accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
  $ 20,584     $ (35,775 )
 
           
Other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax:
               
Unrealized gain (loss) on cash flow hedges, net of tax
    (272 )     (9,199 )
 
           
Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
    (272 )     (9,199 )
 
           
Comprehensive income (loss)
    20,312       (44,974 )
 
           
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest (including accumulated dividends on preferred shares of subsidiary)
    3,214       (2,754 )
 
           
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to common shareholders
  $ 17,098     $ (42,220 )
 
           
          The following table displays the components of accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax.
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Unrealized losses on cash flow hedges, net of tax
  $ (18,257 )   $ (18,005 )
Pension and post-employment benefits, net of tax
    (19,349 )     (19,349 )
 
           
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
  $ (37,606 )   $ (37,354 )
 
           
     (11) Employee and Postretirement Benefits
          Alon has three defined benefit pension plans covering substantially all of its refining and unbranded marketing segment employees, excluding West Coast employees. Alon’s funding policy is to contribute annually not less than the minimum required nor more than the maximum amount that can be deducted for federal income tax purposes. Alon’s estimated contributions during 2009 to its pension plans has not changed significantly from amounts previously disclosed in Alon’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2008. For the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, Alon contributed $660 and $785, respectively, to its qualified pension plans.
          The components of net periodic benefit cost related to Alon’s benefit plans were as follows for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008:
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
Components of net periodic benefit cost:
               
Service cost
  $ 837     $ 457  
Interest cost
    841       748  
Expected return on plan assets
    (840 )     (822 )
Amortization of net loss
    263       53  
 
           
Net periodic benefit cost
  $ 1,101     $ 436  
 
           

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
     (12) Long-Term Debt
          Long-term debt consisted of the following:
                 
    March 31,     December 31,  
    2009     2008  
Term loan credit facilities
  $ 735,025     $ 739,810  
Revolving credit facilities
    181,985       276,818  
Retail credit facilities
    85,333       86,941  
 
           
Total debt
    1,002,343       1,103,569  
Less current portion
    (31,564 )     (28,397 )
 
           
Total long-term debt
  $ 970,779     $ 1,075,172  
 
           
          (a) Alon USA Energy, Inc. Credit Facilities
          Term Loan Credit Facility. On June 22, 2006, Alon entered into a Credit Agreement with Credit Suisse (the “Credit Suisse Credit Facility”) with an aggregate available commitment of $450,000. On August 4, 2006, Alon borrowed $400,000 as a term loan upon consummation of the acquisition of Paramount Petroleum Corporation. On September 28, 2006, Alon borrowed an additional $50,000 as a term loan to finance the acquisition of Edgington Oil Company. The loans under the Credit Suisse Credit Facility will mature on August 2, 2013. Principal payments of $4,500 per annum are to be paid in quarterly installments subject to reduction from mandatory principal repayment events. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $437,625 and $437,810, respectively.
          The borrowings under the Credit Suisse Credit Facility bear interest at a rate based on a margin over the Eurodollar rate from between 1.75% to 2.50% per annum based upon the ratings of the loans by Standard & Poor’s Rating Service and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. Currently, the margin is 2.25% over the Eurodollar rate. The Credit Suisse Credit Facility is jointly and severally guaranteed by all of Alon’s subsidiaries except for Alon’s retail subsidiaries and those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition (Note 3). The Credit Suisse Credit Facility is secured by a second lien on cash, accounts receivable and inventory and a first lien on most of the remaining assets of Alon excluding those of Alon’s retail subsidiaries and those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition.
          The Credit Suisse Credit Facility contains restrictive covenants, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, different businesses, certain lease obligations, and certain restricted payments. This facility does not contain any maintenance financial covenants.
          Letters of Credit Facility. On July 30, 2008, Alon entered into an unsecured revolving credit facility with Israel Discount Bank of New York, as Administrative Agent and Co-Arranger, and Bank Leumi USA, as Co-Arranger, for the issuance of letters of credit in an amount not to exceed $60,000. Letters of credit under this facility are to be used by Alon to support the purchase of crude oil for the Big Spring refinery. This facility was scheduled to terminate on January 1, 2010 or on April 15, 2009 if a certain percent of lenders notify Alon; however, Alon notified the lenders that it was terminating this credit facility on May 7, 2009. The facility was no longer necessary due to the decline in crude oil prices, receipt of all insurance proceeds related to the Big Spring refinery fire and the receipt of approximately $113 million in proceeds for income tax receivables. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, Alon had $0 and $51,283 of outstanding letters of credit under this credit facility.
          (b) Alon USA, LP Credit Facilities
          Revolving Credit Facility. Alon entered, in addition to its other revolving credit facilities, into an amended and restated revolving credit facility (the “IDB Credit Facility”) with Israel Discount Bank of New York (“Israel Discount Bank”) on February 15, 2006, which was further amended and restated thereafter. Israel Discount Bank, acts as administrative agent, co-arranger, collateral agent and lender, and Bank Leumi USA acts as co-arranger and lender under the revolving credit facility. The initial commitment of the lenders under the IDB Credit Facility was $160,000 with options to increase the commitment to $240,000 if crude oil prices increase above certain levels or Alon increases its throughput capacity of facilities

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
owned by subsidiaries that are parties to the IDB Credit Facility. The IDB Credit Facility can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit subject to a facility limit of the lesser of the facility or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. The size of the facility as of March 31, 2009 is $240,000, while the borrowing base was $201,106.
          The IDB Credit Facility will mature on January 1, 2010. Borrowings under the IDB Credit Facility bear interest at the Eurodollar rate plus 1.50% per annum or at IDB’s prime rate. The IDB Credit Facility contains certain restrictive covenants including financial covenants. The IDB Credit Facility is secured by (i) a first lien on Alon’s cash, accounts receivables, inventories and related assets, excluding those of Alon Paramount Holdings, Inc. (“Alon Holdings”), a subsidiary of Alon, and its subsidiaries other than Alon Pipeline Logistics, LLC (“Alon Logistics”), those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition and those of Alon’s retail subsidiaries and (ii) a second lien on Alon’s fixed assets excluding assets held by Alon Holdings, those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition and Alon’s retail subsidiaries.
          Borrowings of $3,000 and $118,000 were outstanding under the IDB Credit Facility at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. As of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, outstanding letters of credit under the IDB Credit Facility were $113,226 and $30,561, respectively.
          (c) Paramount Petroleum Corporation Credit Facility
          Revolving Credit Facility. On February 28, 2007, Paramount Petroleum Corporation entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Paramount Credit Facility”) with Bank of America, N.A. (“BOA”) as agent, sole lead arranger and book manager, primarily secured by the assets of Alon Holdings (excluding Alon Logistics). The Paramount Credit Facility is a $300,000 revolving credit facility which can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit subject to the facility limit of the lesser of or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. At March 31, 2009, the borrowing base under the Paramount Credit Facility was $215,070. Amounts borrowed under the Paramount Credit Facility accrue interest at LIBOR plus a margin based on excess availability. Based on the excess availability as of March 31, 2009, such margin would be 1.75%. The Paramount Credit Facility expires on February 28, 2012. Paramount Petroleum Corporation is required to comply with certain restrictive covenants related to working capital, operations and other matters under the Paramount Credit Facility.
          Borrowings of $72,675 and $11,713 were outstanding under the Paramount Credit Facility at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. As of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, outstanding letters of credit under the Paramount Credit Facility were $76,351 and $12,212, respectively.
          (d) Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. Credit Facilities
          Term Loan Credit Facility. On July 3, 2008, Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (“ARKS”) entered into a $302,000 Term Loan Agreement (the “Krotz Term Loan”) with Credit Suisse, as Administrative and Collateral Agent, and a group of financial institutions. On February 16, 2009, Credit Suisse was replaced as agent by Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. The Krotz Term Loan matures in July 2014, with quarterly principal payments of $4,600 beginning on March 31, 2009. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $297,400 and $302,000, respectively
          The Krotz Term Loan is secured by a first lien on substantially all of the assets of ARKS, except for cash, accounts receivable and inventory, and a second lien on cash, accounts receivable and inventory. The Krotz Term Loan also contains restrictive covenants such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, certain investments and restricted payments. Under the Krotz Term Loan, ARKS is required to comply with a debt service ratio, a leverage ratio, and a capital expenditure limitation.
          ARKS may prepay all or a portion of the outstanding loan balance under the Krotz Term Loan at any time without prepayment penalty.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          On April 9, 2009, ARKS and Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc. (“ARL”) entered into an amendment to the Krotz Term Loan to include among other things, adjustments to the maintenance financial covenants through 2010 and adjustments to the interest rates. In connection with this amendment, Alon and Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd., will provide ARKS with an additional $50,000 consisting of cash and letters of credit to enhance its liquidity (See Note 18).
          As amended, the Krotz Term Loan establishes a base rate of interest that is based on a margin over LIBOR subject to a LIBOR minimum rate of 3.25%. Currently, principal under the Krotz Term loan bears interest at a rate of 11.75%.
          Revolving Credit Facility. On July 3, 2008, ARKS entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the “ARKS Facility”) with BOA as Agent. This facility is guaranteed by ARL and is secured by a first lien on cash, accounts receivable, and inventory of ARKS and ARL and a second lien on the remaining assets. The ARKS Facility was established as a $400,000 revolving credit facility which can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit, subject to a facility limit of the lesser of $400,000 or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. The ARKS Facility terminates on July 3, 2013. The ARKS Facility also contains a feature which will allow for an increase in the facility by $100,000 subject to approval by both parties.
          On December 18, 2008, ARKS entered into an amendment to the ARKS Facility with BOA. This amendment increased the Applicable Margin, amended certain elements of the Borrowing Base calculation and the timing of submissions under certain circumstances, and reduced the commitment from $400,000 to $300,000. Under these circumstances, the facility limit will be the lesser of $300,000 or the amount of the borrowing base, although the amendment contains a feature that will allow for an increase in the facility size to $400,000 subject to approval by both parties.
          On April 9, 2009, the ARKS Facility was further amended to include among other things, a reduction to the commitment from $300,000 to $250,000 with the ability to increase the facility size to $275,000 upon request by ARKS and under certain circumstances up to $400,000 (See Note 18). This amendment also increased the Applicable Margin, amended certain elements of the borrowing base calculation and required a monthly fixed charge coverage ratio.
          At March 31, 2009, the ARKS Facility size was $300,000 and the borrowing base was $192,774.
          Borrowings under the ARKS Facility bear interest at a rate based on a margin over LIBOR, currently 4.0% or a margin over the base rate, currently 2.50%.
          At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the ARKS Facility had an outstanding loan balance of $106,310 and $147,105 and outstanding letters of credit of $54,657 and $68,273, respectively.
          The ARKS Facility also contains customary restrictive covenants, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidation, sales of assets, capital expenditures, additional indebtedness, investments, hedging and certain restricted payments.
          (e) Retail Credit Facilities
          On June 29, 2007, Southwest Convenience Stores, LLC (“SCS”), a subsidiary of Alon, entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Amended Wachovia Credit Facility”), by and among SCS, as borrower, the lender party thereto and Wachovia Bank, N. A. (“Wachovia”), as Administrative Agent now known as Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.
          Borrowings under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility bear interest at a Eurodollar rate plus 1.50% per annum. Principal payments under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility began August 1, 2007 with monthly installments based on a 15-year amortization term. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $84,444 and $86,028, respectively, and there were no further amounts available for borrowing.
          Obligations under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility are jointly and severally guaranteed by Alon, Alon Brands, Inc., Skinny’s, LLC and all of the subsidiaries of SCS. The obligations under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility are secured by a pledge on substantially all of the assets of SCS and Skinny’s, LLC and each of their subsidiaries, including cash, accounts receivable and inventory.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The Amended Wachovia Credit Facility also contains customary restrictive covenants on the activities, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, investments, certain lease obligations and certain restricted payments. The Amended Wachovia Credit Facility also includes one annual financial covenant.
          (f) Other Retail Related Credit Facilities
          In 2003, Alon obtained $1,545 in mortgage loans to finance the acquisition of new retail locations. The interest rates on these loans ranged between 5.5% and 9.7%, with 5 to 15 year payment terms. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $888 and $913, respectively.
          On October 8, 2008, certain of these loans matured and the unpaid balance of $237 was refinanced with another mortgage loan maturing in October 2013.
     (13) Stock-Based Compensation
          Alon has two employee incentive compensation plans, (i) the 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan and (ii) the 2000 Incentive Stock Compensation Plan.
          (a) 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan (share value in dollars)
          The 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan was approved by the stockholders in November 2005, and is a component of Alon’s overall executive incentive compensation program. The 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan permits the granting of awards in the form of options to purchase common stock, SARs, restricted shares of common stock, restricted common stock units, performance shares, performance units and senior executive plan bonuses to Alon’s directors, officers and key employees. Other than the restricted share grants and SARs discussed below, there have been no stock-based awards granted under the 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan.
          Restricted Stock. In August 2005, Alon granted awards of 10,791 shares of restricted stock and in November 2005 Alon granted an award of 12,500 shares of restricted stock, in each case to certain directors, officers and key employees in connection with Alon’s IPO in July 2005. The participants were allowed to acquire shares at a discounted price of $12.00 per share with a grant date fair value of $16.00 per share for the August 2005 awards and $20.42 per share for the November 2005 award. In November 2005, Alon granted awards of 52,672 shares of restricted stock to certain officers and key employees with a grant date fair value of $20.42 per share. Non-employee directors are awarded an annual grant of shares of restricted stock valued at $25. All restricted shares granted under the 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan vest over a period of three years, assuming continued service at vesting.
          Compensation expense for the restricted stock grants amounted to $11 and $28 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. There is no material difference between intrinsic value under Opinion 25 and fair value under SFAS No. 123R for pro forma disclosure purposes.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The following table summarizes the restricted share activity from January 1, 2008:
                 
            Weighted Average  
Nonvested Shares   Shares     Grant Date Fair Values  
Nonvested at January 1, 2008
    26,918     $ 21.74  
Granted
    5,577       13.45  
Vested
    (24,833 )     20.54  
Forfeited
           
 
           
Nonvested at December 31, 2008
    7,662     $ 19.58  
Granted
           
Vested
           
Forfeited
           
 
           
Nonvested at March 31, 2009
    7,662     $ 19.58  
 
           
          As of March 31, 2009, there was $52 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested share-based compensation arrangements granted under the 2005 Incentive Compensation Plan. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.71 years. The fair value of shares vested-to-date in 2009 was $0.
          Stock Appreciation Rights. In March 2007, Alon granted awards of 361,665 Stock Appreciation Rights (“SARs”) to certain officers and key employees. The SARs have a grant price equal to $28.46, the closing price of Alon’s common stock on the date of grant. Additionally, in July 2008, an award of 12,000 SARs was granted to certain employees at the close of the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition at a grant price equal to $14.23. An award of 10,000 SARs was granted in December 2008 at a grant price equal to $14.23. SARs vest and become exercisable over a four-year vesting period as follows: 50% on the second anniversary of the date of grant, 25% on the third anniversary of the date of grant and 25% on the fourth anniversary of the date of grant. When exercised, SARs are convertible into shares of Alon common stock, the number of which will be determined at the time of exercise by calculating the difference between the closing price of Alon common stock on the exercise date and the grant price of the SARs (the “Spread”), multiplying the Spread by the number of SARs being exercised and then dividing the product by the closing price of Alon common stock on the exercise date.
          On March 7, 2009, 180,833 SARs vested. These SARs remain unexercised due to the grant price exceeding the stock price.
          Compensation expense for the SARs grants amounted to $300 and $272 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
          (b) 2000 Incentive Stock Compensation Plan
          On August 1, 2000, Alon Assets, Inc. (“Alon Assets”) and Alon USA Operating, Inc. (“Alon Operating”), majority owned, fully consolidated subsidiaries of Alon, adopted the 2000 Incentive Stock Compensation Plan pursuant to which Alon’s board of directors may grant stock options to certain officers and members of executive management. The 2000 Incentive Stock Compensation Plan authorized grants of options to purchase up to 16,154 shares of common stock of Alon Assets and 6,066 shares of common stock of Alon Operating. All authorized options were granted in 2000 and there have been no additional options granted under this plan. All stock options have ten-year terms. The options are subject to accelerated vesting and become fully exercisable if Alon achieves certain financial performance and debt service criteria. Upon exercise, Alon will reimburse the option holder for the exercise price of the shares and under certain circumstances the related federal and state taxes payable as a result of such exercises (gross-up liability). This plan was closed to new participants subsequent to August 1, 2000, the initial grant date. Total compensation expense recognized under this plan was $109 and $205 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, and is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          The following table summarizes the stock option activity for Alon Assets and Alon Operating for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and for the year ended December 31, 2008:
                                 
    Alon Assets     Alon Operating  
            Weighted             Weighted  
    Number of     Average     Number of     Average  
    Options     Exercise     Options     Exercise  
    Outstanding     Price     Outstanding     Price  
Outstanding at January 1, 2008
    5,216     $ 100       1,959     $ 100  
Granted
                       
Exercised
    (2,423 )     100       (910 )     100  
Forfeited and expired
                       
 
                       
Outstanding at December 31, 2008
    2,793     $ 100       1,049     $ 100  
Granted
                       
Exercised
                       
Forfeited and expired
                       
 
                       
Outstanding at March 31, 2009
    2,793     $ 100       1,049     $ 100  
 
                       
          The aggregate intrinsic value of options exercised in the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $0.
     (14) Stockholders’ Equity (per share in dollars)
          Common Stock Dividends
          On April 2, 2009, Alon paid a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on Alon’s common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 16, 2009.
     (15) Earnings (Loss) Per Share (earnings per share in dollars)
          Basic earnings (loss) per share are calculated as net income (loss) available to common shareholders divided by the average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted earnings per share include the dilutive effect of restricted shares and SARs using the treasury stock method and the dilutive effect of convertible preferred shares using the if-converted method.
          The calculation of earnings (loss) per share, basic and diluted, for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008 is as follows:
                 
    Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
Net income (loss)
  $ 17,351     $ (33,578 )
Average number of shares of common stock outstanding
    46,806       46,782  
Dilutive restricted shares, SARs and conversion of preferred shares
    5,562        
 
           
 
               
Average number of shares of common stock outstanding assuming dilution
    52,368       46,782  
 
           
Earnings (loss) per share — basic
  $ 0.37     $ (0.72 )
 
           
Earnings (loss) per share — diluted *
  $ 0.37     $ (0.72 )
 
           
 
*   For the purpose of adjusting net income (loss) in the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share issued by Alon’s subsidiaries, the effect for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $193, but for the three months ended March 31, 2008 the effect is anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from the calculation. Additionally, net income for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was adjusted $1,996 for preferred stock dividends that would no longer be accrued if the preferred stock was converted to shares of common stock.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
     (16) Related Party Transactions
          Sale of Preferred Shares
          On July 3, 2008, the Company completed the acquisition from Valero of all of the capital stock of Valero Refining Company-Louisiana, a corporation that owned Valero’s refining business and related assets located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana, through ARKS. The purchase price was $333,000 in cash plus approximately $141,494 for working capital, including inventories. The cash portion of the purchase price and working capital payment were funded in part by proceeds from the sale to Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd., the majority stockholder of the Company (“Alon Israel”) of 80,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock, par value $1,000.00 per share (the “Original Preferred Shares”), of ARL, for an aggregate purchase price of $80,000. The sale of the Original Preferred Shares was completed pursuant to the Series A Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”), dated as of July 3, 2008, by and between ARL and Alon Israel. Pursuant to the terms of the Stock Purchase Agreement, Alon Israel was also required to cause letters of credit in the amount of $55,000 (the “Original L/Cs”) to be issued for the benefit of Bank of America, N.A. in order to support the borrowing base of ARKS.
          In connection with the Stock Purchase Agreement, the Company, ARL, Alon Israel and Alon Louisiana Holdings, Inc. (“Alon Louisiana Holdings”), a subsidiary of the Company and the holder of all of the outstanding shares of common stock of ARL, entered into a Stockholders Agreement (the “Original Stockholders Agreement”), dated as of July 3, 2008. On March 31, 2009, the Company, ARL, Alon Israel and Alon Louisiana Holdings entered into an Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement (the “Stockholders Agreement”) pursuant to which Alon Israel agreed to cause additional letters of credit in an aggregate amount up to $25,000 to be issued for the benefit of ARKS (the “Additional L/Cs” and, together with the Original L/Cs, the “L/Cs”), and Alon Israel was granted an option (the “L/C Option”), exercisable at any time the L/Cs are outstanding (but subject to the terms of the credit facilities and other binding obligations of ARL), to withdraw all or part of the L/Cs and acquire shares of Series A Preferred Stock of ARL at their par value of $1,000.00 per share, in an amount equal to such withdrawn L/Cs (the “L/C Preferred Shares,” and, together with the Original Preferred Shares, the “Preferred Shares”).
          Under the terms of the Stockholders Agreement, (i) with respect to the Original Preferred Shares, during the 18-month period beginning on July 3, 2008, and (ii) with respect to the L/C Preferred Shares, during the period beginning on the date of issuance of any Preferred Shares in connection with the exercise of the L/C Option and ending on December 31, 2010, each of Alon Louisiana Holdings and the Company have the option to purchase from Alon Israel all or a portion of the then-outstanding Preferred Shares at a price per share equal to the par value plus accrued but unpaid dividends (the “Call Option”), subject to the prior release of all of the L/Cs and conditioned upon approval of the purchase by the Company’s Audit Committee.
          If the Call Option is not exercised by Alon Louisiana Holdings or the Company, the Preferred Shares are exchangeable for shares of Company common stock in accordance with the terms of the Stockholders Agreement. Specifically, subject to the prior approval of a majority of the Company’s common stockholders, (1) the Preferred Shares may be exchanged at the election of either the Company or Alon Israel, for shares of Company common stock upon a change of control of either ARL or the Company; (2) in the event that the Call Option is not exercised, Alon Israel will have the option to exchange Preferred Shares it then holds for Company common stock during a 5-business day period beginning on the first day on which the Company’s securities trading window is open after each of January 3, 2010, July 1, 2010 and January 1, 2011; and (3) if not so exchanged, all of the Preferred Shares will be mandatorily exchanged for shares of Company common stock on July 3, 2011.
          Pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement, in the event that any L/C is drawn upon by beneficiaries of an L/C, a promissory note will be issued by Alon Louisiana Holdings in favor of Alon Israel for the amount of any such drawn L/Cs. Subject to the prior approval of a majority of the Company’s stockholders, the promissory note will provide that the Company may exchange the promissory note for shares of Company common stock.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
     (17) Commitments and Contingencies
          (a) Commitments
          In the normal course of business, Alon has long-term commitments to purchase services such as natural gas, electricity and water for use by its refineries, terminals, pipelines and retail locations. Alon is also party to various refined product and crude oil supply and exchange agreements. These agreements are short-term in nature or provide terms for cancellation.
          Offtake Agreement with Valero
          In connection with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition (Note 3), in July 2008 Alon and Valero entered into an offtake agreement that provides for Valero to purchase, at market prices, certain specified products and other products as may be mutually agreed upon from time to time. These products include regular and premium unleaded gasoline, ultra low sulfur diesel, jet fuel, light cycle oil, high sulfur No. 2 blendstock, butane/butylene, poly C4, normal butane, LPG mix, propane/propylene, high sulfur slurry, low sulfur atmospheric tower bottoms and ammonium thiosulfate. The term of the offtake agreement as it applies to the products produced by the refinery is as follows: (i) five years for light cycle oil and straight run diesel; (ii) one year for regular and premium unleaded gasoline; and (iii) three months for the remaining refined products.
          (b) Contingencies
          Alon is involved in various other claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. Alon believes the ultimate disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on Alon’s financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
          (c) Environmental
          Alon is subject to loss contingencies pursuant to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. These rules regulate the discharge of materials into the environment and may require Alon to incur future obligations to investigate the effects of the release or disposal of certain petroleum, chemical, and mineral substances at various sites; to remediate or restore these sites; to compensate others for damage to property and natural resources and for remediation and restoration costs. These possible obligations relate to sites owned by Alon and associated with past or present operations. Alon is currently participating in environmental investigations, assessments and cleanups under these regulations at service stations, pipelines and terminals. Alon may in the future be involved in additional environmental investigations, assessments and cleanups. The magnitude of future costs will depend on factors such as the unknown nature and contamination at many sites, the unknown timing, extent and method of the remedial actions which may be required, and the determination of Alon’s liability in proportion to other responsible parties.
          Environmental expenditures are expensed or capitalized depending on their future economic benefit. Expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and that have no future economic benefit are expensed. Liabilities for expenditures of a non-capital nature are recorded when environmental assessment and/or remediation is probable, and the costs can be reasonably estimated. Substantially all amounts accrued are expected to be paid out over the next 15 years. The level of future expenditures for environmental remediation obligations is impossible to determine with any degree of reliability.
          Alon has accrued environmental remediation obligations of $34,934 ($3,119 current payable and $31,815 non-current liability) at March 31, 2009 and $35,833 ($2,652 current payable and $33,181 non-current liability) at December 31, 2008.
          Paramount Petroleum Corporation has indemnification agreements with a prior owner for part of the remediation expenses at its refineries and offsite tank farm and, as a result, has recorded a current receivable of $1,948 and non-current receivable of $5,579 at March 31, 2009.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited, dollars in thousands except as noted)
          In connection with the acquisition of the Big Spring refinery, pipeline and terminal assets from Atofina Petrochemicals, Inc. (“Atofina”) in August 2000, Atofina agreed to indemnify Alon for the costs of environmental investigations, assessments and clean-ups of known conditions that existed at the acquisition date, and as a result, has recorded a current receivable of $1,200 and non-current receivable of $46 at March 31, 2009.
     (18) Subsequent Event
          Dividend Declared
          On May 6, 2009, Alon declared its regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on Alon’s common stock, payable on June 15, 2009 to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 29, 2009.
          Krotz Term Loan Amendment
          As discussed in Note 12, Alon amended on April 9, 2009 the Krotz Term Loan and the ARKS Facility. In connection with the amendments, the heating oil crack spread hedge put in place in July 2008 has been liquidated resulting in the realization of approximately $185,000 in proceeds, including the release of $50,000 of cash collateral supporting the hedge. Of these proceeds, approximately $135,000 has been applied to reduce the Krotz Term Loan and $50,000 was used to reduce borrowings under the ARKS Facility.

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ITEM 2.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
          The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008. In this document, the words “Alon,” “the Company,” “we” and “our” refer to Alon USA Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Forward-Looking Statements
          Certain statements contained in this report and other materials we file with the SEC, or in other written or oral statements made by us, other than statements of historical fact, are “forward-looking statements” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements relate to matters such as our industry, business strategy, goals and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, capital expenditures, liquidity and capital resources and other financial and operating information. We have used the words “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “budget,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “future” and similar terms and phrases to identify forward-looking statements.
          Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations regarding future events, results or outcomes. These expectations may or may not be realized. Some of these expectations may be based upon assumptions or judgments that prove to be incorrect. In addition, our business and operations involve numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could result in our expectations not being realized or otherwise materially affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
          Actual events, results and outcomes may differ materially from our expectations due to a variety of factors. Although it is not possible to identify all of these factors, they include, among others, the following:
    changes in general economic conditions and capital markets;
 
    changes in the underlying demand for our products;
 
    the availability, costs and price volatility of crude oil, other refinery feedstocks and refined products;
 
    changes in the sweet/sour spread;
 
    changes in the light/heavy spread;
 
    the effects of transactions involving forward contracts and derivative instruments;
 
    actions of customers and competitors;
 
    changes in fuel and utility costs incurred by our facilities;
 
    disruptions due to equipment interruption, pipeline disruptions or failure at our or third-party facilities;
 
    the execution of planned capital projects;
 
    adverse changes in the credit ratings assigned to our trade credit and debt instruments;
 
    the effects of and cost of compliance with current and future state and federal environmental, economic, safety and other laws, policies and regulations;
 
    operating hazards, natural disasters, casualty losses and other matters beyond our control;
 
    our planned project of the design and construction of a hydrocracker unit at our California refineries may not be completed within the expected time frame or within the budgeted costs for such project due to factors outside of our control;

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    the global financial crisis’ impact on our business and financial condition in ways that we currently cannot predict. We may face significant challenges if conditions in the financial markets do not improve or continue to worsen, such as adversely impacting our ability to refinance existing credit facilities or extend their terms; and
 
    the other factors discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008 under the caption “Risk Factors.”
          Any one of these factors or a combination of these factors could materially affect our future results of operations and could influence whether any forward-looking statements ultimately prove to be accurate. Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and actual results and future performance may differ materially from those suggested in any forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update these statements unless we are required by the securities laws to do so.
Company Overview
     We are an independent refiner and marketer of petroleum products operating primarily in the South Central, Southwestern and Western regions of the United States. Our crude oil refineries are located in Texas, California, Oregon and Louisiana and have a combined throughput capacity of approximately 250,000 barrels per day (“bpd”). Our refineries produce petroleum products including various grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and other petroleum-based products.
     Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Our refining and unbranded marketing segment includes sour and heavy crude oil refineries that are located in Big Spring, Texas; Paramount and Long Beach, California; and a light sweet crude oil refinery located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana. Because we operate the Long Beach refinery as an extension of the Paramount refinery and due to their physical proximity to one another, we refer to the Long Beach and Paramount refineries together as our “California refineries.” The refineries in our refining and unbranded marketing segment have a combined throughput capacity of approximately 240,000 bpd. At these refineries we refine crude oil into petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, petrochemicals, feedstocks and asphalts, which are marketed primarily in the South Central, Southwestern, and Western United States.
     We market transportation fuels produced at our Big Spring refinery in West and Central Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arizona. We refer to our operations in these regions as our “physically integrated system” because we supply our retail and branded marketing segment convenience stores and unbranded distributors in this region with motor fuels produced at our Big Spring refinery and distributed through a network of pipelines and terminals which we either own or have access to through leases or long-term throughput agreements.
     We market refined products produced at our Paramount refinery to wholesale distributors, other refiners and third parties primarily on the West Coast. Our Long Beach refinery produces asphalt products. Unfinished fuel products and intermediates produced at our Long Beach refinery are transferred to our Paramount refinery via pipeline and truck for further processing or sold to third parties.
     Approximately 98% of the production at the Krotz Springs refinery is light products, including gasoline, diesel, and other distillates. We market refined products from Krotz Springs to wholesale distributors, other refiners, and third parties. The refinery uses its direct access to the Colonial Pipeline to transport products to markets in the Southeastern and Northeastern United States. The refinery’s location also provides access to upriver markets on the Mississippi River and its docking facilities along the Atchafalaya River allow barge access.
     Asphalt Segment. Our asphalt segment markets asphalt produced at our Texas and California refineries included in the refining and unbranded marketing segment and at our Willbridge, Oregon refinery. Asphalt produced by the refineries in our refining and unbranded marketing segment is transferred to the asphalt segment at prices substantially determined by reference to the cost of crude oil, which is intended to approximate wholesale market prices. Our asphalt segment markets asphalt through 12 refinery/terminal locations in Texas (Big Spring), California (Paramount, Long Beach, Elk Grove, Bakersfield and Mojave), Oregon (Willbridge), Washington (Richmond Beach), Arizona (Phoenix, Flagstaff and Fredonia) and Nevada (Fernley) (50% interest) as well as a 50% interest in Wright Asphalt Products Company, LLC (“Wright”). We produce both paving and roofing grades of asphalt, including performance-graded asphalts, emulsions and cutbacks.
     Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. Our retail and branded marketing segment operates 306 convenience stores primarily in Central and West Texas and New Mexico. These convenience stores typically offer various grades

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of gasoline, diesel fuel, general merchandise and food and beverage products to the general public, primarily under the 7-Eleven and FINA brand names. In the first quarter of 2009, approximately 93% of the motor fuel requirements of Alon’s branded marketing operations, including retail operations, were supplied by our Big Spring refinery. As a result of the February 18, 2008 fire, the motor fuels sold by our convenience stores and by branded marketing in the first quarter of 2008 were primarily acquired from third-party suppliers.
     We market gasoline and diesel under the FINA brand name through a network of approximately 670 locations, including our convenience stores. Additionally, our retail and branded marketing segment licenses the use of the FINA brand name and provides credit card processing services to 315 licensed locations that are not under fuel supply agreements with us. Branded distributors that are not part of our integrated supply system, primarily in Central Texas, are supplied with motor fuels we obtain from third-party suppliers.
First Quarter Operational and Financial Highlights
          First quarter of 2009 operating income was $59.6 million, compared to ($47.3) million in the same period last year. Operating income improved principally to improvements in the operating margins of our refining and unbranded marketing assets and an increase in production volumes as a result of the rebuild of the Big Spring refinery and the assets acquired in the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition. The California refineries operated at reduced rates due to a planned turnaround and completion of the naphtha hydrotreater unit which will increase finished gasoline production by approximately 50%. Other operational and financial highlights for the first quarter of 2009 include the following:
    The combined refineries throughput for the first quarter of 2009 averaged 146,890 barrels per day (“bpd”), consisting of an average of 64,417 bpd at the Big Spring refinery, an average of 28,761 bpd at the California refineries and an average of 53,712 bpd at the Krotz Springs refinery compared to a combined average of 66,682 bpd in the first quarter of 2008, consisting of an average of 29,270 bpd at the Big Spring refinery and an average of 37,412 bpd at the California refineries.
 
    Our average refinery operating margin for the Big Spring refinery increased $7.09 per barrel to $13.63 per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $6.54 per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2008. This increase was attributable mainly to the 2008 fire at the Big Spring refinery.
 
    Our California refineries operating margin for the three months ended March 31, 2009 increased $2.96 per barrel to $1.16 per barrel, compared to ($1.80) per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2008. This increase was primarily from a 56% decrease in WTI prices from $98.00 per barrel in the first quarter of 2008 to $43.10 per barrel in the first quarter of 2009.
 
    The increased margin environment for the first quarter of 2009 was partially offset by contraction of sweet/sour and light/heavy crude oil differentials. The average sweet/sour spread for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $0.94 per barrel compared to $4.67 per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2008. The average light/heavy spread for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $4.52 per barrel compared to $16.85 per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2008.
 
    We received insurance proceeds of $34.1 million related to the rebuild of the Big Spring refinery and received cash of approximately $113 million from income tax receivables.
 
    Asphalt margins in the first quarter of 2009 were ($51.48) per ton compared to $42.31 per ton in the first quarter of 2008. The lower asphalt margins were a result of a charge to cost of goods sold in the first quarter of 2009 due to a build-up of winter fill inventories that will be sold primarily during the second and third quarters, while asphalt prices were declining. Also, the average asphalt sales price decreased 20.7% from $396.07 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $314.16 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for blended asphalt and the average asphalt sales price decreased 30.2% from $177.30 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $123.73 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for non-blended asphalt. The percentage decrease in asphalt sales price for both blended and non-blended asphalt was less than the 56% decrease in WTI prices for the same periods.

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    On April 2, 2009, we paid a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on our common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 16, 2009.
Major Influences on Results of Operations
          Refining and Unbranded Marketing
          Our earnings and cash flow from our refining and unbranded marketing segment are primarily affected by the difference between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks. The cost to acquire crude oil and other feedstocks and the price of the refined products we ultimately sell depend on numerous factors beyond our control, including the supply of, and demand for, crude oil, gasoline and other refined products which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in domestic and foreign economies, weather conditions, domestic and foreign political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels and government regulation. While our sales and operating revenues fluctuate significantly with movements in crude oil and refined product prices, it is the spread between crude oil and refined product prices, and not necessarily fluctuations in those prices that affect our earnings.
          In order to measure our operating performance, we compare our per barrel refinery operating margins to certain industry benchmarks. We compare our Big Spring refinery’s per barrel operating margin to the Gulf Coast and Group III, or mid-continent, 3/2/1 crack spreads. A 3/2/1 crack spread in a given region is calculated assuming that three barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted, or cracked, into two barrels of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate the Gulf Coast 3/2/1 crack spread using the market values of Gulf Coast conventional gasoline and ultra low-sulfur diesel and the market value of West Texas Intermediate, or WTI, a light, sweet crude oil. We calculate the Group III 3/2/1 crack spread using the market values of Group III conventional gasoline and ultra low-sulfur diesel and the market value of WTI crude oil. We calculate the per barrel operating margin for our Big Spring refinery by dividing the Big Spring refinery’s gross margin by its throughput volumes. Gross margin is the difference between net sales and cost of sales (exclusive of unrealized hedging gains and losses).
          We compare our California refineries’ per barrel operating margin to the West Coast 6/1/2/3 crack spread. A 6/1/2/3 crack spread is calculated assuming that six barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted, or cracked, into one barrel of gasoline, two barrels of diesel and three barrels of fuel oil. We calculate the West Coast 6/1/2/3 crack spread using the market values of West Coast LA CARB pipeline gasoline, LA ultra low-sulfur pipeline diesel, LA 380 pipeline CST (fuel oil) and the market value of WTI crude oil. The per barrel operating margin of the California refineries is calculated by dividing the California refinery’s gross margin by their throughput volumes. Another comparison to other West Coast refineries that we use is the West Coast 3/2/1 crack spread. This is calculated using the market values of West Coast LA CARB pipeline gasoline, LA ultra low-sulfur pipeline diesel and the market value of WTI crude oil.
          We compare our Krotz Springs refinery’s per barrel margin to the Gulf Coast 2/1/1 crack spread. A 2/1/1 crack spread is calculated assuming that two barrels of a benchmark crude oil are converted, or cracked, into one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate the Gulf Coast 2/1/1 crack spread using the market values of Gulf Coast conventional gasoline and No. 2 diesel and the market value of WTI crude oil. The per barrel operating margin of the Krotz Springs refinery is calculated by dividing the Krotz Springs refinery’s gross margin by its throughput volumes.
          Our Big Spring refinery and California refineries are capable of processing substantial volumes of sour crude oil, which has historically cost less than intermediate and sweet crude oils. We measure the cost advantage of refining sour crude oil at our refineries by calculating the difference between the value of WTI crude oil less the value of West Texas Sour, or WTS, a medium, sour crude oil. We refer to this differential as the sweet/sour spread. A widening of the sweet/sour spread can favorably influence the operating margin for our Big Spring and California refineries. In addition, our California refineries are capable of processing significant volumes of heavy crude oils which historically have cost less than light crude oils. We measure the cost advantage of refining heavy crude oils by calculating the difference between the value of WTI crude oil less the value of MAYA crude, which we refer to as the light/heavy spread. A widening of the light/heavy spread can favorably influence the refinery operating margins for our California refineries.
          The results of operations from our refining and unbranded marketing segment are also significantly affected by our refineries’ operating costs, particularly the cost of natural gas used for fuel and the cost of electricity. Natural

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gas prices have historically been volatile. For example, natural gas prices ranged between $5.29 and $13.58 per million British thermal units, or MMBTU, in 2008. Typically, electricity prices fluctuate with natural gas prices.
          Demand for gasoline products is generally higher during summer months than during winter months due to seasonal increases in highway traffic. As a result, the operating results for our refining and unbranded marketing segment for the first and fourth calendar quarters are generally lower than those for the second and third calendar quarters. The effects of seasonal demand for gasoline are partially offset by seasonality in demand for diesel, which in our region is generally higher in winter months as east-west trucking traffic moves south to avoid winter conditions on northern routes.
          Safety, reliability and the environmental performance of our refineries are critical to our financial performance. The financial impact of planned downtime, such as a turnaround or major maintenance project, is mitigated through a diligent planning process that considers product availability, margin environment and the availability of resources to perform the required maintenance.
          The nature of our business requires us to maintain substantial quantities of crude oil and refined product inventories. Crude oil and refined products are essentially commodities, and we have no control over the changing market value of these inventories. Because our inventory is valued at the lower of cost or market value under the LIFO inventory valuation methodology, price fluctuations generally have little effect on our financial results.
          Asphalt
          Our earnings from our asphalt segment depend primarily upon the margin between the price at which we sell our asphalt and the transfer prices for asphalt produced at our refineries in the refining and unbranded marketing segment. Asphalt is transferred to our asphalt segment at prices substantially determined by reference to the cost of crude oil, which is intended to approximate wholesale market prices. The asphalt segment also conducts operations at and markets asphalt produced by our refinery located in Willbridge, Oregon. In addition to producing asphalt at our refineries, at times when refining margins are unfavorable we opportunistically purchase asphalt from other producers for resale. A portion of our asphalt sales are made using fixed price contracts for delivery of asphalt products at future dates. Because these contracts are priced at the market prices for asphalt at the time of the contract, a change in the cost of crude oil between the time we enter into the contract and the time we produce the asphalt can positively or negatively influence the earnings of our asphalt segment. Demand for paving asphalt products is higher during warmer months than during colder months due to seasonal increases in road construction work. As a result, the revenues for our asphalt segment for the first and fourth calendar quarters are expected to be lower than those for the second and third calendar quarters.
          Retail and Branded Marketing
          Our earnings and cash flows from our retail and branded marketing segment are primarily affected by merchandise and motor fuel sales and margins at our convenience stores and the motor fuel sales volumes and margins from sales to our FINA-branded distributors. Retail merchandise gross margin is equal to retail merchandise sales less the delivered cost of the retail merchandise, net of vendor discounts and rebates, measured as a percentage of total retail merchandise sales. Retail merchandise sales are driven by convenience, branding and competitive pricing. Motor fuel margin is equal to motor fuel sales less the delivered cost of fuel and motor fuel taxes, measured on a cents per gallon (“cpg”) basis. Our motor fuel margins are driven by local supply, demand and competitor pricing. Our convenience store sales are seasonal and we experience increased demand for our products in the second and third quarters of the year, while the first and fourth quarters usually experience lower overall demand.
Factors Affecting Comparability
          Our financial condition and operating results over the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008 have been influenced by the following factors which are fundamental to understanding comparisons of our period-to-period financial performance.
          On February 18, 2008, a fire at the Big Spring refinery destroyed the propylene recovery unit and damaged equipment in the alkylation and gas concentration units. The re-start of the crude unit in a hydroskimming mode began on April 5, 2008 and the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (“FCCU”) resumed operations on September 26, 2008. Consequently, our first quarter 2008 numbers reflect the impacts of this event on our results of operations.
          On July 3, 2008, Alon completed the acquisition of all the capital stock of the refining business located in Krotz Springs, Louisiana, from Valero Energy Corporation (“Valero”). The purchase price was $333,000 in cash plus

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$141,494 for working capital, including inventories. The completion of the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition increased Alon’s crude refining capacity by 50% to approximately 250,000 barrels per day (“bpd”) including our refineries located on the West Coast and West Texas. The results from our Krotz Springs refinery are included in our results of operations for the first quarter of 2009.
Results of Operations
          Net Sales. Net sales consist primarily of sales of refined petroleum products through our refining and unbranded marketing segment and asphalt segment and sales of merchandise, including food products, and motor fuels, through our retail and branded marketing segment.
          For the refining and unbranded marketing segment, net sales consist of gross sales, net of customer rebates, discounts and excise taxes and includes inter-segment sales to our asphalt and retail and branded marketing segments, which are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements. Asphalt sales consist of gross sales, net of any discounts and applicable taxes. Retail net sales consist of gross merchandise sales, less rebates, commissions and discounts, and gross fuel sales, including motor fuel taxes. For our petroleum and asphalt products, net sales are mainly affected by crude oil and refined product prices and volume changes caused by operations. Our retail merchandise sales are affected primarily by competition and seasonal influences.
          Cost of Sales. Refining and unbranded marketing cost of sales includes crude oil and other raw materials, inclusive of transportation costs. Asphalt cost of sales includes costs of purchased asphalt, blending materials and transportation costs. Retail cost of sales includes cost of sales for motor fuels and for merchandise. Motor fuel cost of sales represents the net cost of purchased fuel, including transportation costs and associated motor fuel taxes. Merchandise cost of sales includes the delivered cost of merchandise purchases, net of merchandise rebates and commissions. Cost of sales excludes depreciation and amortization expense.
          Direct Operating Expenses. Direct operating expenses, which relate to our refining and unbranded marketing and asphalt segments, include costs associated with the actual operations of our refineries and asphalt terminals, such as energy and utility costs, routine maintenance, labor, insurance and environmental compliance costs. Environmental compliance costs, including monitoring and routine maintenance, are expensed as incurred. All operating costs associated with our crude oil and product pipelines are considered to be transportation costs and are reflected as cost of sales.
          Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative, or SG&A, expenses consist primarily of costs relating to the operations of our convenience stores, including labor, utilities, maintenance and retail corporate overhead costs. Refining and marketing and asphalt segment corporate overhead and marketing expenses are also included in SG&A expenses.
          Summary Financial Tables. The following tables provide summary financial data and selected key operating statistics for us and our three operating segments for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008. The summary financial data for our three operating segments does not include certain SG&A expenses and depreciation and amortization related to our corporate headquarters. The following data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008.

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ALON USA ENERGY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED
          Summary Financial Tables. The following tables provide summary financial data and selected key operating statistics for Alon and our three operating segments for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008. The summary financial data for our three operating segments does not include certain SG&A expenses and depreciation and amortization related to our corporate headquarters. The following data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. All information in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” except for Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2008 is unaudited.
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands, except per share data)  
STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS DATA:
               
Net sales (1)
  $ 722,180     $ 1,020,763  
Operating costs and expenses:
               
Cost of sales
    539,730       968,997  
Direct operating expenses
    68,864       42,289  
Selling, general and administrative expenses (2)
    31,915       28,854  
Net costs associated with fire (3)
          16,462  
Depreciation and amortization (4)
    22,090       13,745  
 
           
Total operating costs and expenses
    662,599       1,070,347  
 
           
Gain on disposition of assets
          2,311  
 
           
Operating income (loss)
    59,581       (47,273 )
Interest expense (5)
    (28,256 )     (10,656 )
Equity earnings (loss) of investees
    (3 )     316  
Other income, net
    257       745  
 
           
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit), non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries and accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    31,579       (56,868 )
Income tax expense (benefit)
    10,995       (21,093 )
 
           
Income (loss) before non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries and accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    20,584       (35,775 )
Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries
    1,083       (2,197 )
Accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary
    2,150        
 
           
Net income (loss)
  $ 17,351     $ (33,578 )
 
           
Earnings (loss) per share, basic and diluted
  $ 0.37     $ (0.72 )
 
           
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic (in thousands)
    46,806       46,782  
 
           
Cash dividends per share
  $ 0.04     $ 0.04  
 
           
 
               
CASH FLOW DATA:
               
Net cash provided by (used in):
               
Operating activities
  $ 119,527     $ (49,624 )
Investing activities
    (15,009 )     16,868  
Financing activities
    (104,679 )     (4,724 )
 
               
OTHER DATA:
               
Adjusted EBITDA (6)
  $ 81,925     $ (34,778 )
Capital expenditures (7)
    10,357       9,182  
Capital expenditures to rebuild the Big Spring refinery
    32,135        
Capital expenditures for turnaround and chemical catalyst
    7,363       1,609  

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    March 31,   December 31,
    2009   2008
BALANCE SHEET DATA (end of period):
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 18,293     $ 18,454  
Working capital
    186,869       250,384  
Total assets
    2,407,794       2,413,433  
Total debt
    1,002,343       1,103,569  
Total equity
    555,583       536,867  
 
(1)   Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail and branded marketing segment of $11,044 and $9,654 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
(2)   Includes corporate headquarters selling, general and administrative expenses of $190 and $151 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.
 
(3)   Net costs associated with fire for the three months ended March 31, 2008 includes $11,672 of expenses incurred from pipeline commitment deficiencies, crude sale losses and other incremental costs; $4,000 for our insurance deductibles under the insurance policies; and $790 for depreciation for the temporarily idled facilities.
 
(4)   Includes corporate depreciation and amortization of $147 and $223 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.
 
(5)   Interest expense of $28,256 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 includes $5,715 related to the unwind of the heating oil hedge. The remaining increase compared to interest expense of $10,656 for the three months ended March 31, 2008 is primarily due to interest on borrowings related to the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition and operations.
 
(6)   Adjusted EBITDA represents earnings before non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries, income tax expense, interest expense, depreciation and amortization and gain on disposition of assets. Adjusted EBITDA is not a recognized measurement under GAAP; however, the amounts included in Adjusted EBITDA are derived from amounts included in our consolidated financial statements. Our management believes that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors during periods of normal operations because it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors, and other interested parties in the evaluation of companies in our industry. In addition, our management believes that Adjusted EBITDA is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry because the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA generally eliminates the effects of non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries, income tax expense, interest expense, gain on disposition of assets and the accounting effects of capital expenditures and acquisitions, items that may vary for different companies for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.
 
    Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
 
    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
 
    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the prior claim that non-controlling interest have on the income generated by non-wholly-owned subsidiaries;
 
    Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in or cash requirements for our working capital needs; and

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    Our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may differ from EBITDA calculations of other companies in our industry, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.
 
    Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered a measure of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only supplementally.
 
    The following table reconciles net income (loss) to Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively:
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands)  
Net income (loss)
  $ 17,351     $ (33,578 )
Non-controlling interest in income of subsidiaries (including accumulated dividends on preferred stock of subsidiary)
    3,233       (2,197 )
Income tax expense (benefit)
    10,995       (21,093 )
Interest expense
    28,256       10,656  
Depreciation and amortization
    22,090       13,745  
Gain on disposition of assets
          (2,311 )
 
           
Adjusted EBITDA
  $ 81,925     $ (34,778 )
 
           
 
    Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2008 includes net costs associated with fire at the Big Spring refinery of $16,462.
 
(7)   Includes corporate capital expenditures of $578 and $140 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, which are not allocated to our three operating segments.

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REFINING AND UNBRANDED MARKETING SEGMENT
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands, except per  
    barrel data and pricing statistics)  
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
               
Net sales (1)
  $ 586,928     $ 772,039  
Operating costs and expenses:
               
Cost of sales
    422,994       755,957  
Direct operating expenses
    58,371       30,473  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    7,327       4,389  
Net costs associated with fire (2)
          16,462  
Depreciation and amortization
    18,037       9,630  
 
           
Total operating costs and expenses
    506,729       816,911  
 
           
Gain on disposition of assets
          2,311  
 
           
Operating income (loss)
  $ 80,199     $ (42,561 )
 
           
 
               
KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
               
Total unbranded sales volume (bpd)
    122,459       63,707  
Per barrel of throughput:
               
Refinery operating margin – Big Spring (3)
  $ 13.63     $ 6.54  
Refinery operating margin – CA Refineries (3)
    1.16       (1.80 )
Refinery operating margin – Krotz Springs (3)
    13.19       N/A  
Refinery direct operating expenses – Big Spring (4)
    3.60       5.93  
Refinery direct operating expenses – CA Refineries (4)
    5.84       4.31  
Refinery direct operating expenses – Krotz Springs (4)
    4.63       N/A  
Capital expenditures
    9,398       7,702  
Capital expenditures to rebuild Big Spring refinery
    32,135        
Capital expenditures for turnaround and chemical catalyst
    7,363       1,609  
 
               
PRICING STATISTICS:
               
WTI crude oil (per barrel)
  $ 43.10     $ 98.00  
WTS crude oil (per barrel)
    42.16       93.33  
MAYA crude oil (per barrel)
    38.58       81.15  
Crack spreads (3/2/1) (per barrel):
               
Gulf Coast
  $ 9.65     $ 9.42  
Group III
    9.72       10.10  
West Coast
    17.92       16.53  
Crack spreads (6/1/2/3) (per barrel):
               
West Coast
  $ 6.21     $ (0.86 )
Crack spreads (2/1/1) (per barrel):
               
Gulf Coast high sulfur diesel
  $ 9.48     $ 9.52  
Crude oil differentials (per barrel):
               
WTI less WTS
  $ 0.94     $ 4.67  
WTI less MAYA
    4.52       16.85  
Product price (dollars per gallon):
               
Gulf Coast unleaded gasoline
  $ 1.218     $ 2.431  
Gulf Coast ultra low-sulfur diesel
    1.331       2.811  
Group III unleaded gasoline
    1.232       2.449  
Group III ultra low-sulfur diesel
    1.309       2.823  
West Coast LA CARBOB (unleaded gasoline)
    1.505       2.690  
West Coast LA ultra low-sulfur diesel
    1.349       2.799  
Natural gas (per MMBTU)
  $ 4.47     $ 8.74  

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THROUGHPUT AND YIELD DATA:
BIG SPRING
                                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    bpd     %     bpd     %  
Refinery throughput:
                               
Sour crude
    55,452       86.1       25,034       85.6  
Sweet crude
    7,864       12.2       2,378       8.1  
Blendstocks
    1,101       1.7       1,858       6.3  
 
                       
Total refinery throughput (5)
    64,417       100.0       29,270       100.0  
 
                       
Refinery production:
                               
Gasoline
    28,265       44.9       13,976       48.0  
Diesel/jet
    21,737       34.5       7,640       26.2  
Asphalt
    5,228       8.3       3,098       10.6  
Petrochemicals
    3,026       4.8       1,402       4.8  
Other
    4,672       7.5       3,046       10.4  
 
                       
Total refinery production (6)
    62,928       100.0       29,162       100.0  
 
                       
Refinery utilization (7)
            90.5 %             40.8 %
THROUGHPUT AND YIELD DATA:
CALIFORNIA REFINERIES
                                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    bpd     %     bpd     %  
Refinery throughput:
                               
Sour crude
    12,225       42.5       10,702       28.6  
Heavy crude
    16,498       57.4       25,551       68.3  
Blendstocks
    38       0.1       1,159       3.1  
 
                       
Total refinery throughput (5)
    28,761       100.0       37,412       100.0  
 
                       
Refinery production:
                               
Gasoline
    3,266       11.5       5,505       15.3  
Diesel/jet
    6,215       22.0       8,622       23.9  
Asphalt
    8,735       30.9       10,398       28.9  
Light unfinished
    1,909       6.7       0       0.0  
Heavy unfinished
    7,796       27.6       11,282       31.4  
Other
    370       1.3       197       0.5  
 
                       
Total refinery production (6)
    28,291       100.0       36,004       100.0  
 
                       
Refinery utilization (7)
            58.5 %             50.0 %
THROUGHPUT AND YIELD DATA:
KROTZ SPRINGS
                 
    For the Three Months
Ended
 
    March 31,  
    2009  
    bpd     %  
Refinery throughput:
               
Light sweet crude
    27,423       51.1  
Heavy sweet crude
    20,083       37.4  
Blendstocks
    6,206       11.5  
 
           
Total refinery throughput (5)
    53,712       100.0  
 
           
Refinery production:
               
Gasoline
    24,449       44.7  
Diesel/jet
    24,468       44.7  
Heavy oils
    887       1.6  
Other
    4,885       9.0  
 
           
Total refinery production (6)
    54,689       100.0  
 
           
Refinery utilization (7)
            57.2 %

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(1)   Net sales include intersegment sales to our asphalt and retail and branded marketing segments at prices which approximate wholesale market price. These intersegment sales are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
 
(2)   Net costs associated with fire for the three months ended March 31, 2008 includes $11,672 of expenses incurred from pipeline commitment deficiencies, crude sale losses and other incremental costs; $4,000 for our insurance deductibles under the insurance policies; and $790 for depreciation for the temporarily idled facilities.
 
(3)   Refinery operating margin is a per barrel measurement calculated by dividing the margin between net sales and cost of sales (exclusive of unrealized hedging gains and losses) attributable to each refinery by the refinery’s throughput volumes. Industry-wide refining results are driven and measured by the margins between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil, which are referred to as crack spreads. We compare our refinery operating margins to these crack spreads to assess our operating performance relative to other participants in our industry. There were unrealized hedging gains of $133 and $4,788 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively, for the California refineries. There were unrealized hedging gains of $18,026 for the Krotz Springs refinery for the three months ended March 31, 2009. The Big Spring refinery had no unrealized hedge gains or losses for the three months ended March 31, 2009 or 2008.
 
(4)   Refinery direct operating expense is a per barrel measurement calculated by dividing direct operating expenses at our Big Spring, California, and Krotz Springs refineries, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, by the applicable refinery’s total throughput volumes.
 
(5)   Total refinery throughput represents the total barrels per day of crude oil and blendstock inputs in the refinery production process.
 
(6)   Total refinery production represents the barrels per day of various products produced from processing crude and other refinery feedstocks through the crude units and other conversion units at the refineries. Total refinery production at the Big Spring refinery for the three months ended March 31, 2008 was reduced due to the fire on February 18, 2008.
 
(7)   Refinery utilization represents average daily crude oil throughput divided by crude oil capacity, excluding planned periods of downtime for maintenance and turnarounds. The 2008 refinery utilization at our Big Spring refinery was affected by the fire on February 18, 2008 which ceased production at the refinery until limited operations were resumed on April 5, 2008.

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ASPHALT SEGMENT
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands,  
    except per ton data)  
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
               
Net sales
  $ 50,760     $ 103,940  
Operating costs and expenses:
               
Cost of sales (1)
    60,233       92,135  
Direct operating expenses
    10,493       11,816  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    1,154       1,386  
Depreciation and amortization
    538       532  
 
           
Total operating costs and expenses
    72,418       105,869  
 
           
Operating income (loss)
  $ (21,658 )   $ (1,929 )
 
           
 
               
KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
               
Blended asphalt sales volume (tons in thousands) (2)
    147       249  
Non-blended asphalt sales volume (tons in thousands) (3)
    37       30  
Blended asphalt sales price per ton (2)
  314.16     396.67  
Non-blended asphalt sales price per ton (3)
  123.73     177.30  
Asphalt margin per ton (4)
  $ (51.48 )   $ 42.31  
Capital expenditures
  $ 162     $ 213  
 
(1)   Cost of sales includes intersegment purchases of asphalt blends from our refining and unbranded marketing segment at prices which approximate wholesale market prices. These intersegment purchases are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
 
(2)   Blended asphalt represents base asphalt that has been blended with other materials necessary to sell the asphalt as a finished product.
 
(3)   Non-blended asphalt represents base material asphalt and other components that require additional blending before being sold as a finished product.
 
(4)   Asphalt margin is a per ton measurement calculated by dividing the margin between net sales and cost of sales by the total sales volume. Asphalt margins are used in the asphalt industry to measure operating results related to asphalt sales.

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RETAIL AND BRANDED MARKETING SEGMENT
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands,  
    except per gallon data)  
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
               
Net sales (1)
  $ 167,470     $ 309,254  
Operating costs and expenses:
               
Cost of sales (2)
    139,481       285,375  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    23,244       22,928  
Depreciation and amortization
    3,368       3,360  
 
           
Total operating costs and expenses
    166,093       311,663  
 
           
Operating income (loss)
  $ 1,377     $ (2,409 )
 
           
 
               
KEY OPERATING STATISTICS:
               
Integrated branded fuel sales (thousands of gallons) (3)
    63,646       54,158  
Integrated branded fuel margin (cents per gallon) (3)
    4.7 ¢      1.8 ¢ 
Non-Integrated branded fuel sales (thousands of gallons) (3)
    3,146       38,269  
Non-Integrated branded fuel margin (cents per gallon) (3)
    10.1 ¢      (0.2 )¢ 
 
               
Number of stores (end of period)
    306       307  
Retail fuel sales (thousands of gallons)
    28,183       24,871  
Retail fuel sales (thousands of gallons per site per month)
    31       27  
Retail fuel margin (cents per gallon) (4)
    16.8 ¢      18.4 ¢ 
Retail fuel sales price (dollars per gallon) (5)
  $ 1.88     $ 3.10  
Merchandise sales
  $ 63,053     $ 58,455  
Merchandise sales (per site per month)
    67       63  
Merchandise margin (6)
    31.7 %     31.4 %
Capital expenditures
  $ 219     $ 1,127  
 
(1)   Includes excise taxes on sales by the retail and branded marketing segment of $11,044 and $9,654 for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
(2)   Cost of sales includes inter-segment purchases of motor fuels from our refining and unbranded marketing segment at prices which approximate wholesale market prices. These inter-segment purchases are eliminated through consolidation of our financial statements.
 
(3)   Marketing sales volume represents branded fuel sales to our wholesale marketing customers located in both our integrated and non-integrated regions. The branded fuels we sell in our integrated region are primarily supplied by the Big Spring refinery. Due to the fire on February 18, 2008 at the Big Spring refinery, more fuel was obtained from third-party suppliers during the three months ended March 31, 2008. The branded fuels we sell in the non-integrated region are obtained from third-party suppliers. The marketing margin represents the margin between the net sales and cost of sales attributable to our branded fuel sales volume, expressed on a cents-per-gallon basis.
 
(4)   Retail fuel margin represents the difference between motor fuel sales revenue and the net cost of purchased motor fuel, including transportation costs and associated motor fuel taxes, expressed on a cents-per-gallon basis. Motor fuel margins are frequently used in the retail industry to measure operating results related to motor fuel sales.
 
(5)   Retail fuel sales price per gallon represents the average sales price for motor fuels sold through our retail convenience stores.
 
(6)   Merchandise margin represents the difference between merchandise sales revenues and the delivered cost of merchandise purchases, net of rebates and commissions, expressed as a percentage of merchandise sales

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    revenues. Merchandise margins, also referred to as in-store margins, are commonly used in the retail convenience store industry to measure in-store, or non-fuel, operating results.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2009 Compared to the Three Months Ended March 31, 2008
Net Sales
          Consolidated. Net sales for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $722.2 million, compared to $1,020.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $298.6 million or 29.3%. This decrease was primarily due to decreased refined product prices in all segments due to lower crude oil costs.
          Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Net sales for our refining and unbranded marketing segment were $586.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $772.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $185.1 million or 24.0%. The decrease in net sales was primarily due to significantly lower refined product prices partially offset by the inclusion of three months of sales from the Krotz Springs refinery acquired in July 2008 and lower 2008 throughput volumes as a result of the February 18, 2008 Big Spring refinery fire. Following the February 2008 fire, production ceased at the Big Spring refinery until the re-start of the crude unit in a hydroskimming mode on April 5, 2008. Total refinery throughput for the three months ended March 31, 2009 averaged 146,890 bpd consisting of: 64,417 bpd at the Big Spring refinery; 28,761 bpd at the California refineries and 53,712 bpd at our Krotz Springs refinery compared to total refinery throughput for the three months ended March 31, 2008 of 66,682 bpd, consisting of: 29,270 bpd at the Big Spring refinery and 37,412 bpd at the California refineries, an increase in total refinery throughput of 39.7%, excluding the addition of Krotz Springs refinery throughput. The California refineries operated at reduced rates due to a planned turnaround and completion of the naptha hydrotreater unit. The decrease in refined product prices that our Big Spring refinery experienced was similar to the price decreases experienced in the Gulf Coast markets. The decrease in refined product prices that our California refineries experienced was similar to the price decreases experienced in the West Coast markets. The average price of Gulf Coast gasoline in 2009 decreased 121.3 cpg, or 49.9%, to 121.8 cpg, compared to 243.1 cpg in 2008. The average Gulf Coast diesel price in 2009 decreased 148.0 cpg, or 52.7%, to 133.1 cpg compared to 281.1 cpg in 2008. The average price of West Coast LA CARBOB gasoline in 2009 decreased 118.5 cpg, or 44.1%, to 150.5 cpg, compared to 269.0 cpg in 2008. The average West Coast LA diesel price in 2009 decreased 145.0 cpg, or 51.8%, to 134.9 cpg compared to 279.9 cpg in 2008.
          Asphalt Segment. Net sales for our asphalt segment were $50.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $103.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $53.1 million or 51.1%. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in the average asphalt sales price and lower asphalt sales volumes in 2009. In the three months ended March 31, 2009, 184 tons of asphalt was sold compared to 279 tons of asphalt sold in the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of 95 tons of asphalt or 34.1%. The average asphalt sales price decreased 20.7% from $396.07 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $314.16 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for blended asphalt and the average asphalt sales price decreased 30.2% from $177.30 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $123.73 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for non-blended asphalt. The percentage decrease in asphalt sales price for both blended and non-blended asphalt was less than the 56% decrease in WTI prices for the same periods.
          Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. Net sales for our retail and branded marketing segment were $167.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009 compared to $309.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $141.8 million or 45.8%. This decrease was primarily attributable to decreased motor fuel prices.
Cost of Sales
          Consolidated. Cost of sales was $539.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $969.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $429.3 million or 44.3%. This decrease was primarily due to decreased costs in all segments due to lower crude oil prices.

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          Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Cost of sales for our refining and unbranded marketing segment was $423.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $756.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $333.0 million or 44.0%. This decrease was primarily due to decreased production costs from the substantial decreases in the price of crude, partially offset by the inclusion of the three months of cost of sales from the Krotz Springs refinery acquired in July 2008 and lower 2008 throughput volumes at the Big Spring refinery from the February 2008 fire. The average price per barrel of WTS for 2009 decreased $51.17 per barrel to $42.16 per barrel, compared to $93.33 per barrel for 2008, a decrease of 54.8%.
          Asphalt Segment. Cost of sales for our asphalt segment was $60.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $92.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $31.9 million or 34.6%. This decrease was due to the lower asphalt sales volumes in 2009. In the three months ended March 31, 2009, 184 tons of asphalt was sold compared to 279 tons of asphalt sold in the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of 95 tons of asphalt or 34.1%.
          Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. Cost of sales for our retail and branded marketing segment was $139.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $285.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $145.9 million or 51.1%. This decrease was primarily attributable to decreased motor fuel prices.
Direct Operating Expenses
          Consolidated. Direct operating expenses were $68.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $42.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $26.6 million or 62.9%. This increase was primarily due to the direct operating expenses associated with the Krotz Springs refinery acquired in July 2008 and higher throughput volumes at the Big Spring refinery for the three months ended March 31, 2009 compared to the same period in 2008.
          Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Direct operating expenses for our refining and unbranded marketing segment for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $58.4 million, compared to $30.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $27.9 million or 91.5%. This increase was primarily due to the inclusion of three months of direct operating expenses associated with the Krotz Springs refinery acquired in July 2008 and higher throughput volumes at the Big Spring refinery for the three months ended March 31, 2009 compared to the same period in 2008.
          Asphalt Segment. Direct operating expenses for our asphalt segment for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $10.5 million, compared to $11.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $1.3 million or 11.0%. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in sales volumes.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
          Consolidated. SG&A expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $31.9 million, compared to $28.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $3.0 million or 10.4%. The increase is primarily due to the inclusion of SG&A costs from the Krotz Springs refinery in the first three months of 2009 and an increase of $2.0 million in allowance for doubtful accounts.
          Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. SG&A expenses for our refining and unbranded marketing segment for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $7.3 million, compared to $4.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $2.9 million or 65.9%. The increase is primarily due to the inclusion of SG&A costs from the Krotz Springs refinery in the first three months of 2009 and an increase of $2.0 million in allowance for doubtful accounts.
          Asphalt Segment. SG&A expenses for our asphalt segment for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $1.2 million, compared to $1.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $0.2 million or 14.3%. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in sales volumes.

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          Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. SG&A expenses for our retail and branded marketing segment for the three months ended March 31, 2009 were $23.2 million, compared to $22.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $0.3 million or 1.3%.
Depreciation and Amortization
          Depreciation and amortization for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $22.1 million, compared to $13.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $8.4 million or 61.3%. This increase was primarily attributable to the depreciation on the assets acquired in the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition in July 2008 and capital expenditures placed in service in September 2008 from the rebuild of the Big Spring refinery.
Operating Income
          Consolidated. Operating income for the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $59.6 million, compared to ($47.3) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $106.9 million.
          Refining and Unbranded Marketing Segment. Operating income for our refining and unbranded marketing segment was $80.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($42.6) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $122.8 million. This increase was primarily attributable to the increase in our refinery operating margin at the Big Spring refinery and the margins realized at the Krotz Springs refinery. The operating margin for our Big Spring refinery for 2009 increased $7.09 per barrel to $13.63 per barrel in 2009 from $6.54 per barrel in 2008. The Big Spring refinery shut down operations from February 18, 2008 until April 5, 2008 which negatively impacted the operating income margin for the three months ended March 31, 2008. Our operating margin for our California refineries increased $2.96 per barrel to $1.16 per barrel for the three months ended March 31, 2009 from a ($1.80) per barrel in same period in 2008. This increase was primarily from a 56% decrease in WTI prices from $98.00 per barrel in the first quarter of 2008 to $43.10 per barrel in the first quarter of 2009. Refining and unbranded marketing segment operating income was also affected by a decrease of the sweet/sour spread from $4.67 per barrel in 2008 to $0.94 per barrel for 2009, a decrease of 80.0%.
          Asphalt Segment. Operating income for our asphalt segment was ($21.7) million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($1.9) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, a decrease of $19.8 million. The lower asphalt margins were a result of a charge to cost of goods sold of $160.09 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 due to a build-up of winter fill inventories that will be sold primarily during the upcoming second and third quarters, while asphalt prices were declining. Also, the average asphalt sales price decreased 20.7% from $396.07 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $314.16 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for blended asphalt and the average asphalt sales price decreased 30.2% from $177.30 per ton in the first quarter of 2008 to $123.73 per ton in the first quarter of 2009 for non-blended asphalt. The percentage decrease in asphalt sales price for both blended and non-blended asphalt was less than the 56% decrease in WTI prices for the same periods.
          Retail and Branded Marketing Segment. Operating income for our retail and branded marketing segment was $1.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($2.4) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $3.8 million. This increase was primarily due to higher branded motor fuel sales margins.
Interest Expense
          Interest expense was $28.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $10.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $17.6 million. This increase was primarily due to interest on borrowings related to the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition in July 2008 and operations. Also included in interest expense was $5.7 million recorded in March 2009 related to the unwind of our heating oil hedge.

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
          Income tax expense was $11.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($21.1) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008. This increase resulted from our net income in the first quarter of 2009 compared to net loss in the first quarter of 2008. Our effective tax rate was 34.8% for the first quarter of 2009, compared to an effective tax rate of 37.1% for the first quarter of 2008.
Non-Controlling Interest In Income (Loss) Of Subsidiaries
          Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries represents the proportional share of net income (loss) related to non-voting common stock owned by non-controlling interests in two of our subsidiaries, Alon Assets, Inc. and Alon USA Operating, Inc. Non-controlling interest in income (loss) of subsidiaries was $1.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($2.2) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $3.3 million. This increase resulted from net income in the first quarter of 2009 compared to net loss in the first quarter of 2008.
Net Income (Loss)
          Net income was $17.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to ($33.6) million for the three months ended March 31, 2008, an increase of $51.0 million. This increase was attributable to the factors discussed above.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
          Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand; cash generated from our operating activities and borrowings under our revolving credit facilities. In addition, we realized approximately $185.0 million during April 2009 from the liquidation of our heating oil hedge including the release of $50.0 million of cash collateral supporting the hedge. Of these proceeds, approximately $135.0 million has been applied to reduce the Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. term loan and $50.0 million was used to reduce borrowings under the Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. revolving credit facility.
          We believe that the aforementioned sources of funds and other sources of capital available to us will be sufficient to satisfy the anticipated cash requirements associated with our business during the next 12 months.
          Our ability to generate sufficient cash from our operating activities depends on our future performance, which is subject to general economic, political, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. In addition, our future capital expenditures and other cash requirements could be higher than we currently expect as a result of various factors, including the costs of such future capital expenditures related to the expansion of our business.
          Depending upon conditions in the capital markets and other factors, we will from time to time consider the issuance of debt or equity securities, or other possible capital markets transactions, the proceeds of which could be used to refinance current indebtedness, extend or replace existing revolving credit facilities or for other corporate purposes. Pursuant to our growth strategy, we will also consider from time to time acquisitions of, and investments in, assets or businesses that complement our existing assets and businesses. Acquisition transactions, if any, are expected to be financed through cash on hand and from operations, bank borrowings, the issuance of debt or equity securities or a combination of two or more of those.

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Cash Flows
          The following table sets forth our consolidated cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008:
                 
    For the Three Months Ended  
    March 31,  
    2009     2008  
    (dollars in thousands)  
Cash provided by (used in):
               
Operating activities
  $ 119,527     $ (49,624 )
Investing activities
    (15,009 )     16,868  
Financing activities
    (104,679 )     (4,724 )
 
           
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
  $ (161 )   $ (37,480 )
 
           
Cash Flows Provided By (Used In) Operating Activities
          Net cash provided by operating activities during the three months ended March 31, 2009 was $119.5 million, compared to cash used in operating activities of $49.6 million during the three months ended March 31, 2007. The total change in cash provided by operating activities of $169.2 million is primarily attributable working capital improvements related to the collection of approximately $113.0 million in income tax receivables and the change in net income for the three months ended March 31, 2009 as compared to the same period last year.
Cash Flows Provided By (Used In) Investing Activities
          Net cash used in investing activities was $15.0 million during the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $16.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2008. The net change in cash provided by investing activities is primarily attributable to $49.9 million of capital expenditures offset by insurance proceeds of $34.1 million in the first quarter of 2009, as compared to the proceeds of $27.3 million from the sale of short term investments offset by capital expenditures of $10.8 million in the same period last year.
Cash Flows Used In Financing Activities
          Net cash used in financing activities was $104.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2009, compared to $4.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2008. The net change in cash used in financing activities is primarily attributable to a $94.8 million decrease in our revolving credit facilities and increased payments on long-term debt, principally the debt associated with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition in July 2008.
          Cash Position and Indebtedness
          We consider all highly-liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are stated at cost, which approximates market value. As of March 31, 2009, our total cash and cash equivalents were $18.3 million and we had total debt of $1,002.3 million.

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          Summary of Indebtedness. The following table sets forth summary information related to our term loan credit facility, revolving credit facilities and retail credit facilities as of March 31, 2009:
                         
    As of March 31, 2009  
            (dollars in thousands)        
    Amount Outstanding     Total Facility     Total Availability (1)  
Debt, including current portion:
                       
Term loan credit facilities
  $ 735,025     $ 735,025     $  
Revolving credit facilities
    181,985       900,000 (2)(3)     222,479  
Retail credit facilities
    85,333       85,333        
 
                 
Totals
  $ 1,002,343     $ 1,720,358     $ 222,479  
 
                 
 
(1)   Total availability was calculated as the lesser of (a) the total size of the facilities less outstanding borrowings and applicable letters of credit as of March 31, 2009 which was $473.8 million or (b) total borrowing base less outstanding borrowings and applicable letters of credit as of March 31, 2009 which was $222.5 million.
 
(2)   On April 9, 2009, the Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. Revolving Credit Facility commitment was decreased from $300.0 million to $250.0 million, which decrease is not reflected above.
 
(3)   On May 7, 2009, Alon terminated a $60.0 million Letter of Credit Facility, which termination is not reflected above.
          Alon USA Energy, Inc. Credit Facilities
          Term Loan Credit Facility. On June 22, 2006, Alon entered into a Credit Agreement with Credit Suisse (the “Credit Suisse Credit Facility”) with an aggregate available commitment of $450.0 million. On August 4, 2006, Alon borrowed $400.0 million as a term loan upon consummation of the acquisition of Paramount Petroleum Corporation. On September 28, 2006, Alon borrowed an additional $50.0 million as a term loan to finance the acquisition of Edgington Oil Company. The loans under the Credit Suisse Credit Facility will mature on August 2, 2013. Principal payments of $4.5 million per annum are to be paid in quarterly installments subject to reduction from mandatory principal repayment events. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $437.6 million and $437.8 million, respectively.
          The borrowings under the Credit Suisse Credit Facility bear interest at a rate based on a margin over the Eurodollar rate from between 1.75% to 2.50% per annum based upon the ratings of the loans by Standard & Poor’s Rating Service and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. Currently, the margin is 2.25% over the Eurodollar rate. The Credit Suisse Credit Facility is jointly and severally guaranteed by all of Alon’s subsidiaries except for Alon’s retail subsidiaries and those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition. The Credit Suisse Credit Facility is secured by a second lien on cash, accounts receivable and inventory and a first lien on most of the remaining assets of Alon excluding those of Alon’s retail subsidiaries and those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition.
          The Credit Suisse Credit Facility contains restrictive covenants, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, different businesses, certain lease obligations, and certain restricted payments. This facility does not contain any maintenance financial covenants.
          Letters of Credit Facility. On July 30, 2008, Alon entered, in addition to its other revolving credit facilities, into an unsecured revolving credit facility with Israel Discount Bank of New York, as Administrative Agent and Co-Arranger, and Bank Leumi USA, as Co-Arranger, for the issuance of letters of credit in an amount not to exceed $60.0 million. Letters of credit under this facility are to be used by Alon to support the purchase of crude oil for the Big Spring refinery. This facility was scheduled to terminate on January 1, 2010 or on April 15, 2009 if a certain percent of lenders notify Alon; however, Alon notified the lenders that it was terminating this credit facility on May 7, 2009. The facility was no longer necessary due to the decline in crude oil prices, receipt of all insurance proceeds related to the Big Spring refinery fire, and the receipt of approximately $113 million in proceeds for income tax receivables. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, Alon had $0 and $51.3 million of outstanding letters of credit under this credit facility.

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          Alon USA, LP Credit Facilities
          Revolving Credit Facility. Alon entered into an amended and restated revolving credit facility (the “IDB Credit Facility”) with Israel Discount Bank of New York (“Israel Discount Bank”) on February 15, 2006, which was further amended and restated thereafter. Israel Discount Bank acts as administrative agent, co-arranger, collateral agent and lender, and Bank Leumi USA acts as co-arranger and lender under the revolving credit facility. The initial commitment of the lenders under the IDB Credit Facility was $160.0 million with options to increase the commitment to $240.0 million if crude oil prices increase above certain levels or Alon increases its throughput capacity of facilities owned by subsidiaries that are parties to the IDB Credit Facility. The IDB Credit Facility can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit subject to a facility limit of the lesser of the facility or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. The size of the facility as of March 31, 2009 is $240.0 million, while the borrowing base was $201.1 million.
          The IDB Credit Facility will mature on January 1, 2010. Borrowings under the IDB Credit Facility bear interest at the Eurodollar rate plus 1.50% per annum or at IDB’s prime rate. The IDB Credit Facility contains certain restrictive covenants including financial covenants. The IDB Credit Facility is secured by (i) a first lien on Alon’s cash, accounts receivables, inventories and related assets, excluding those of Alon Paramount Holdings, Inc. (“Alon Holdings”), a subsidiary of Alon, and its subsidiaries other than Alon Pipeline Logistics, LLC (“Alon Logistics”), those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition and those of Alon’s retail subsidiaries and (ii) a second lien on Alon’s fixed assets excluding assets held by Alon Holdings, those subsidiaries established in conjunction with the Krotz Springs refinery acquisition and Alon’s retail subsidiaries.
          Borrowings of $3.0 million and $118.0 million were outstanding under the IDB Credit Facility at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. As of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, outstanding letters of credit under the IDB Credit Facility were $113.2 million and $30.6 million, respectively.
          Paramount Petroleum Corporation Credit Facility
          Revolving Credit Facility. On February 28, 2007, Paramount Petroleum Corporation entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Paramount Credit Facility”) with Bank of America, N.A. (“BOA”) as agent, sole lead arranger and book manager, primarily secured by the assets of Alon Holdings (excluding Alon Logistics). The Paramount Credit Facility is a $300.0 million revolving credit facility which can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit subject to the facility limit of the lesser of or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. At March 31, 2009, the borrowing base under the Paramount Credit Facility was $215.1 million. Amounts borrowed under the Paramount Credit Facility accrue interest at LIBOR plus a margin based on excess availability. Based on the excess availability as of March 31, 2009, such margin would be 1.75%. The Paramount Credit Facility expires on February 28, 2012. Paramount Petroleum Corporation is required to comply with certain restrictive covenants related to working capital, operations and other matters under the Paramount Credit Facility.
          Borrowings of $72.7 million and $11.7 million were outstanding under the Paramount Credit Facility at March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. As of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, outstanding letters of credit under the Paramount Credit Facility were $76.4 million and $12.2 million, respectively.
          Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. Credit Facilities
          Term Loan Credit Facility. On July 3, 2008, Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (“ARKS”) entered into a $302.0 million Term Loan Agreement (the “Krotz Term Loan”) with Credit Suisse, as Administrative and Collateral Agent, and a group of financial institutions. On February 16, 2009, Credit Suisse was replaced as agent by Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. The Krotz Term Loan matures in July 2014, with quarterly principal payments of $4.6 million beginning on March 31, 2009. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $297.4 million and $302.0 million, respectively.

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          The Krotz Term Loan is secured by a first lien on substantially all of the assets of ARKS, except for cash, accounts receivable and inventory, and a second lien on cash, accounts receivable and inventory. The Krotz Term Loan also contains restrictive covenants such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, certain investments and restricted payments. Under the Krotz Term Loan, ARKS is required to comply with a debt service ratio, a leverage ratio, and a capital expenditure limitation.
          ARKS may prepay all or a portion of the outstanding loan balance under the Krotz Term Loan at any time without prepayment penalty.
          On April 9, 2009, ARKS and Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc. (“ARL”) entered into an amendment to the Krotz Term Loan to include among other things, adjustments to the maintenance financial covenants through 2010 and adjustments to the interest rates. In connection with this amendment, Alon and Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd. will provide ARKS with an additional $50.0 million consisting of cash and letters of credit to enhance its liquidity.
          As amended, the Krotz Term Loan establishes a base rate of interest that is based on a margin over LIBOR subject to a LIBOR minimum rate of 3.25%. Currently, principal under the Krotz Term Loan bears interest at a rate of 11.75%.
          Revolving Credit Facility. On July 3, 2008, ARKS entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the “ARKS Facility”) with BOA as Agent. This facility is guaranteed by ARL and is secured by a first lien on cash, accounts receivable, and inventory of ARKS and ARL and a second lien on the remaining assets. The ARKS Facility was established as a $400.0 million revolving credit facility which can be used both for borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit, subject to a facility limit of the lesser of $400.0 million or the amount of the borrowing base under the facility. The ARKS Facility terminates on July 3, 2013. The ARKS Facility also contains a feature which will allow for an increase in the facility by $100.0 million subject to approval by both parties.
          On December 18, 2008, ARKS entered into an amendment to the ARKS Facility with BOA. This amendment increased the Applicable Margin, amended certain elements of the Borrowing Base calculation and the timing of submissions under certain circumstances, and reduced the commitment from $400.0 million to $300.0 million. Under these circumstances, the facility limit will be the lesser of $300.0 million or the amount of the borrowing base, although the amendment contains a feature that will allow for an increase in the facility size to $400.0 million subject to approval by both parties.
          On April 9, 2009, the ARKS Facility was further amended to include among other things, a reduction to the commitment from $300.0 million to $250.0 million with the ability to increase the facility size to $275.0 million upon request by ARKS and under certain circumstances up to $400.0 million. This amendment also increased the Applicable Margin, amended certain elements of the borrowing base calculation and required a monthly fixed charge coverage ratio.
          At March 31, 2009, the ARKS Facility size was $300.0 million and the borrowing base was $192.8 million.
          Borrowings under the ARKS Facility bear interest at a rate based on a margin over LIBOR, currently 4.0% or a margin over the base rate, currently 2.50%.
          At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the ARKS Facility had an outstanding loan balance of $106.3 million and $147.1 million and outstanding letters of credit of $54.7 million and $68.3 million, respectively.
          The ARKS Facility also contains customary restrictive covenants, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidation, sales of assets, capital expenditures, additional indebtedness, investments, hedging and certain restricted payments.
          Retail Credit Facilities
          On June 29, 2007, Southwest Convenience Stores, LLC (“SCS”), a subsidiary of Alon, entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Amended Wachovia Credit Facility”), by and among SCS, as borrower, the lender party thereto and Wachovia Bank, N. A. (“Wachovia”), as Administrative Agent now known as Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.

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          Borrowings under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility bear interest at a Eurodollar rate plus 1.50% per annum. Principal payments under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility began August 1, 2007 with monthly installments based on a 15-year amortization term. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $84.4 million and $86.0 million, respectively, and there were no further amounts available for borrowing.
          Obligations under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility are jointly and severally guaranteed by Alon, Alon Brands, Inc., Skinny’s, LLC and all of the subsidiaries of SCS. The obligations under the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility are secured by a pledge on substantially all of the assets of SCS and Skinny’s, LLC and each of their subsidiaries, including cash, accounts receivable and inventory.
          The Amended Wachovia Credit Facility also contains customary restrictive covenants on the activities, such as restrictions on liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, additional indebtedness, investments, certain lease obligations and certain restricted payments. The Amended Wachovia Credit Facility also includes one annual financial covenant.
          Other Retail Related Credit Facilities
          In 2003, Alon obtained $1.5 million in mortgage loans to finance the acquisition of new retail locations. The interest rates on these loans ranged between 5.5% and 9.7%, with 5 to 15 year payment terms. At March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, the outstanding balance was $0.9 million and $0.9 million, respectively.
          On October 8, 2008, certain of these loans matured and the unpaid balance of $0.2 million was refinanced with another mortgage loan maturing in October 2013.
Capital Spending
          Each year our Board of Directors approves capital projects, including regulatory and planned turnaround projects that our management is authorized to undertake in our annual capital budget. Additionally, at times when conditions warrant or as new opportunities arise, other projects or the expansion of existing projects may be approved. Our total capital expenditure and turnaround/chemical catalyst budget for 2009 is $80.8 million, excluding capital expenditures to rebuild the Big Spring refinery, of which $47.8 million is related to regulatory and compliance projects, $15.4 million is related to turnaround and chemical catalyst, and $17.6 million is related to various improvement and sustaining projects. Approximately $17.7 million has been spent as of March 31, 2009.
          Clean Air Capital Expenditures. We expect to spend approximately $15.6 million in the aggregate in 2009 to comply with the Federal Clean Air Act regulations requiring a reduction in sulfur content in gasoline.
          Turnaround and Chemical Catalyst Costs. We expect to spend approximately $15.4 million during 2009 relating to turnaround and chemical catalyst. Approximately $7.4 million has been spent as of March 31, 2009 compared to $1.6 million for the same period in 2008.
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
          There have been no material changes outside the ordinary course of business from our contractual obligations and commercial commitments detailed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
          We have no off-balance sheet arrangements.

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Critical Accounting Policies
          We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. In order to apply these principles, we must make judgments, assumptions and estimates based on the best available information at the time. Actual results may differ based on the accuracy of the information utilized and subsequent events, some of which we may have little or no control over.
          Our critical accounting policies are described under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008. Certain critical accounting policies that materially affect the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements are the use of the LIFO method for valuing certain inventories and the deferral and subsequent amortization of costs associated with major turnarounds and chemical catalysts replacements. No significant changes to these accounting policies have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2008.
New Accounting Standards and Disclosures
          New accounting standards are disclosed in Note 1(c) Basis of Presentation and Certain Significant Accounting Policies—New Accounting Standards included in the consolidated financial statements included in Item 1 of this report.

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ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
          Changes in commodity prices, purchased fuel prices and interest rates are our primary sources of market risk. Our risk management committee oversees all activities associated with the identification, assessment and management of our market risk exposure.
Commodity Price Risk
          We are exposed to market risks related to the volatility of crude oil and refined product prices, as well as volatility in the price of natural gas used in our refinery operations. Our financial results can be affected significantly by fluctuations in these prices, which depend on many factors, including demand for crude oil, gasoline and other refined products, changes in the economy, worldwide production levels, worldwide inventory levels and governmental regulatory initiatives. Our risk management strategy identifies circumstances in which we may utilize the commodity futures market to manage risk associated with these price fluctuations.
          In order to manage the uncertainty relating to inventory price volatility, we have consistently applied a policy of maintaining inventories at or below a targeted operating level. In the past, circumstances have occurred, such as timing of crude oil cargo deliveries, turnaround schedules or shifts in market demand that have resulted in variances between our actual inventory level and our desired target level. Upon the review and approval of our risk management committee, we may utilize the commodity futures market to manage these anticipated inventory variances.
          We maintain inventories of crude oil, refined products, asphalt and blendstocks, the values of which are subject to wide fluctuations in market prices driven by world economic conditions, regional and global inventory levels and seasonal conditions. As of March 31, 2009, we held approximately 6.0 million barrels of crude oil, refined product and asphalt inventories valued under the LIFO valuation method with an average cost of $49.57 per barrel. Market value exceeded carrying value of LIFO costs by $7.0 million. We refer to this excess as our LIFO reserve. If the market value of these inventories had been $1.00 per barrel lower, our LIFO reserve would have been reduced by $6.0 million.
          In accordance with SFAS No. 133, all commodity futures contracts are recorded at fair value and any changes in fair value between periods is recorded in the profit and loss section of our consolidated financial statements. “Forwards” represent physical trades for which pricing and quantities have been set, but the physical product delivery has not occurred by the end of the reporting period. “Futures” represent trades which have been executed on the New York Mercantile Exchange which have not been closed or settled at the end of the reporting period. A “long” represents an obligation to purchase product and a “short” represents an obligation to sell product.

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          The following table provides information about our derivative commodity instruments as of March 31, 2009:
                                                 
            Wtd Avg   Wtd Avg            
Description   Contract   Purchase   Sales   Contract   Market   Gain
of Activity   Volume   Price/BBL   Price/BBL   Value   Value   (Loss)
                                    (in thousands)        
     
Forwards-long (Crude)
    81,000     $ 43.91     $     $ 3,557     $ 3,787     $ 230  
Forwards-short (Crude)
    (90,000 )           47.51       (4,276 )     (4,333 )     (57 )
Forwards-short (Gasoline)
    (200,000 )           57.19       (11,438 )     (11,192 )     246  
Forwards-short (Diesel)
    (25,000 )           50.05       (1,251 )     (1,426 )     (175 )
Futures-long (Crude Calls – Asphalt)
    140,000       4.68             655       708       53  
Futures-short (Crude)
    (320,000 )           50.24       (16,078 )     (15,891 )     187  
Futures-long (Heating Oil)
    25,000       61.95             1,549       1,436       (113 )
Futures-short (Heating Oil)
    (15,000 )           58.23       (874 )     (862 )     12  
                                                 
            Wtd Avg   Wtd Avg            
Description   Contract   Contract   Market   Contract   Market   Gain
of Activity   Volume   Spread   Spread   Value   Value   (Loss)
Futures-crack spread (Heating Oil)
    10,323,875     $ 21.47     $ 8.02     $ 221,649     $ 82,829     $ 138,819  
Futures-long (SPR swaps)
    672,000     $ 100.21     $ 60.96     $ 67,340     $ 40,967     $ (26,373 )
Interest Rate Risk
          As of March 31, 2009, $1,002.3 million of our outstanding debt was at floating interest rates. Outstanding borrowings under the Credit Suisse Credit Facility and the Amended Wachovia Credit Facility bear interest at Eurodollar plus 2.25% and 1.5% per annum, respectively. As of March 31, 2009, we had interest rate swap agreements with a notional amount of $350.0 million and fixed interest rates ranging from 4.25% to 4.75%. An increase of 1% in the Eurodollar rate would result in an increase in our interest expense of approximately $6.5 million per annum.
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
(1) Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures.
          Our management has evaluated, with the participation of our principal executive and principal financial officers, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of the end of the period covered by this report, and has concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
(2) Changes in internal control over financial reporting.
          There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as described in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during our last fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES.
          In connection with an $80.0 million investment by Alon Israel Oil Company, Ltd. (“Alon Israel”) in Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc. (“ARL”), a subsidiary formed in connection with the acquisition of the Krotz Springs, Louisiana refinery, ARL issued 80,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock, par value $1,000 per share (the “Preferred Shares”), to Alon Israel. Dividends on the Preferred Shares accrue and are payable quarterly at a rate of 10.75% per annum. To date ARL has not made any such dividend payments. As of March 31, 2009, dividends in arrears in respect of the Preferred Shares were $6.5 million in the aggregate.
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
     
Exhibit    
Number   Description of Exhibit
 
   
3.1
  Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Alon USA Energy, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on July 7, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
3.2
  Amended and Restated Bylaws of Alon USA Energy, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on July 14, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
4.1
  Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on June 17, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
10.1†
  First Amendment Agreement dated as of April 9, 2009 by and among Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc., Alon Krotz Springs, Inc., the lenders party thereto and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as successor to Credit Suisse, Cayman Islands Branch, as agent (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Form 8-K, filed by the Company on April 27, 2009, SEC File No. 001-32567).
 
   
10.2
  Second Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement dated as of April 9, 2009 by and among Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc., Alon Krotz Springs, Inc., the lenders party thereto and Bank of America, N.A., as agent (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to Form 8-K, filed by the Company on April 27, 2009, SEC File No. 001-32567).
 
   
31.1
  Certifications of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to §302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
   
31.2
  Certifications of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to §302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
   
32.1
  Certifications of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. §1350, as adopted pursuant to §906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
  Filed under confidential treatment request.

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SIGNATURES
          Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
         
  Alon USA Energy, Inc.
 
 
Date: May 8, 2009  By:   /s/ David Wiessman    
    David Wiessman   
    Executive Chairman   
 
     
Date: May 8, 2009  By:   /s/ Jeff D. Morris    
    Jeff D. Morris   
    Chief Executive Officer   
 
     
Date: May 8, 2009  By:   /s/ Shai Even    
    Shai Even   
    Chief Financial Officer   
 

 


Table of Contents

EXHIBITS
     
Exhibit    
Number   Description of Exhibit
 
   
3.1
  Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Alon USA Energy, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on July 7, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
3.2
  Amended and Restated Bylaws of Alon USA Energy, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on July 14, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
4.1
  Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Form S-1, filed by the Company on June 17, 2005, SEC File No. 333-124797).
 
   
10.1†
  First Amendment Agreement dated as of April 9, 2009 by and among Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc., Alon Krotz Springs, Inc., the lenders party thereto and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as successor to Credit Suisse, Cayman Islands Branch, as agent (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Form 8-K, filed by the Company on April 27, 2009, SEC File No. 001-32567).
 
   
10.2
  Second Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement dated as of April 9, 2009 by and among Alon Refining Louisiana, Inc., Alon Krotz Springs, Inc., the lenders party thereto and Bank of America, N.A., as agent (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to Form 8-K, filed by the Company on April 27, 2009, SEC File No. 001-32567).
 
   
31.1
  Certifications of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to §302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
   
31.2
  Certifications of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to §302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
   
32.1
  Certifications of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. §1350, as adopted pursuant to §906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
  Filed under confidential treatment request.